Chapter XI


Captain Morgan resolving to attack and plunder the city of Puerto Bello, equips a fleet, and with little expense and small forces takes it.


SOME may think that the French having deserted Captain Morgan, the English alone could not have sufficient courage to attempt such great actions as before. But Captain Morgan, who always communicated vigour with his words, infused such spirit into his men, as put them instantly upon new designs; they being all persuaded that the sole execution of his orders would be a certain means of obtaining great riches, which so influenced their minds, that with inimitable courage they all resolved to follow him, as did also a certain pirate of Campechy, who on this occasion joined with Captain Morgan, to seek new fortunes under his conduct. Thus Captain Morgan in a few days gathered a fleet of nine sail, either ships or great boats, wherein he had four hundred and sixty military men.

All things being ready, they put forth to sea, Captain Morgan imparting his design to nobody at present; he only told them on several occasions, that he doubted not to make a good fortune by that voyage, if strange occurrences happened not. They steered towards the continent, where they arrived in a few days near Costa Rica, all their fleet safe. No sooner had they discovered land but Captain Morgan declared his intentions to the captains, and presently after to the company. He told them he intended to plunder Puerto Bello by night, being resolved to put the whole city to the sack: and to encourage them he added, this enterprise could not fail, seeing he had kept it secret, without revealing it to anybody, whereby they could not have notice of his coming. To this proposition some answered, "they had not a sufficient number of men to assault so strong and great a city." But Captain Morgan replied, "If our number is small, our hearts are great; and the fewer persons we are, the more union and better shares we shall have in the spoil." Hereupon, being stimulated with the hope of those vast riches they promised themselves from their success, they unanimously agreed to that design. Now, that my reader may better comprehend the boldness of this exploit, it may be necessary to say something beforehand of the city of Puerto Bello.

This city is in the province of Costa Rica, 10 deg. north latitude, fourteen leagues from the gulf of Darien, and eight westwards from the port called Nombre de Dios. It is judged the strongest place the king of Spain possesses in all the West Indies, except Havanna and Carthagena. Here are two castles almost impregnable, that defend the city, situate at the entry of the port, so that no ship or boat can pass without permission. The garrison consists of three hundred soldiers, and the town is inhabited by about four hundred families. The merchants dwell not here, but only reside awhile, when the galleons come from or go for Spain, by reason of the unhealthiness of the air, occasioned by vapours from the mountains; so that though their chief warehouses are at Puerto Bello, their habitations are at Panama, whence they bring the plate upon mules, when the fair begins, and when the ships belonging to the company of negroes arrive to sell slaves.

Captain Morgan, who knew very well all the avenues of this city and the neighbouring coasts, arrived in the dusk of the evening at Puerto de Naos, ten leagues to the west of Puerto Bello. Being come hither, they sailed up the river to another harbour called Puerto Pontin, where they anchored: here they put themselves into boats and canoes, leaving in the ships only a few men to bring them next day to the port. About midnight they came to a place called Estera longa Lemos, where they all went on shore, and marched by land to the first posts of the city: they had in their company an Englishman, formerly a prisoner in those parts, who now served them for a guide: to him and three or four more they gave commission to take the sentinel, if possible, or kill him on the place: but they seized him so cunningly, as he had no time to give warning with his musket, or make any noise, and brought him, with his hands bound, to Captain Morgan, who asked him how things went in the city, and what forces they had; with other circumstances he desired to know. After every question they made him a thousand menaces to kill him, if he declared not the truth. Then they advanced to the city, carrying the said sentinel bound before them: having marched about a quarter of a league, they came to the castle near the city, which presently they closely surrounded, so that no person could get either in or out.

Being posted under the walls of the castle, Captain Morgan commanded the sentinel, whom they had taken prisoner, to speak to those within, charging them to surrender to his discretion; otherwise they should all be cut in pieces, without quarter. But they regarding none of these threats, began instantly to fire, which alarmed the city; yet notwithstanding, though the governor and soldiers of the said castle made as great resistance as could be, they were forced to surrender. Having taken the castle, they resolved to be as good as their words, putting the Spaniards to the sword, thereby to strike a terror into the rest of the city. Whereupon, having shut up all the soldiers and officers as prisoners into one room, they set fire to the powder (whereof they found great quantity) and blew up the castle into the air, with all the Spaniards that were within. This done, they pursued the course of their victory, falling upon the city, which, as yet, was not ready to receive them. Many of the inhabitants cast their precious jewels and money into wells and cisterns, or hid them in places underground, to avoid, as much as possible, being totally robbed. One of the party of pirates, assigned to this purpose, ran immediately to the cloisters, and took as many religious men and women as they could find. The governor of the city, not being able to rally the citizens, through their great confusion, retired to one of the castles remaining, and thence fired incessantly at the pirates: but these were not in the least negligent either to assault him, or defend themselves, so that amidst the horror of the assault, they made very few shots in vain; for aiming with great dexterity at the mouths of the guns, the Spaniards were certain to lose one or two men every time they charged each gun anew.

This continued very furious from break of day till noon; yea, about this time of the day the case was very dubious which party should conquer, or be conquered. At last, the pirates perceiving they had lost many men, and yet advanced but little towards gaining either this, or the other castles, made use of fire-balls, which they threw with their hands, designing to burn the doors of the castles; but the Spaniards from the walls let fall great quantities of stones, and earthen pots full of powder, and other combustible matter, which forced them to desist. Captain Morgan seeing this generous defence made by the Spaniards, began to despair of success. Hereupon, many faint and calm meditations came into his mind; neither could he determine which way to turn himself in that strait. Being thus puzzled, he was suddenly animated to continue the assault, by seeing English colours put forth at one of the lesser castles, then entered by his men; of whom he presently after spied a troop coming to meet him, proclaiming victory with loud shouts of joy. This instantly put him on new resolutions of taking the rest of the castles, especially seeing the chiefest citizens were fled to them, and had conveyed thither great part of their riches, with all the plate belonging to the churches and divine service.

To this effect, he ordered ten or twelve ladders to be made in all haste, so broad, that three or four men at once might ascend them: these being finished, he commanded all the religious men and women, whom he had taken prisoners, to fix them against the walls of the castle. This he had before threatened the governor to do, if he delivered not the castle: but his answer was, "he would never surrender himself alive." Captain Morgan was persuaded the governor would not employ his utmost force, seeing the religious women, and ecclesiastical persons, exposed in the front of the soldiers to the greatest danger. Thus the ladders, as I have said, were put into the hands of religious persons of both sexes, and these were forced, at the head of the companies, to raise and apply them to the walls: but Captain Morgan was fully deceived in his judgment of this design; for the governor, who acted like a brave soldier in performance of his duty, used his utmost endeavour to destroy whosoever came near the walls. The religious men and women ceased not to cry to him, and beg of him, by all the saints of heaven, to deliver the castle, and spare both his and their own lives; but nothing could prevail with his obstinacy and fierceness. Thus many of the religious men and nuns were killed before they could fix the ladders; which at last being done, though with great loss of the said religious people, the pirates mounted them in great numbers, and with not less valour, having fire-balls in their hands, and earthen pots full of powder; all which things, being now at the top of the walls, they kindled and cast in among the Spaniards.

This effort of the pirates was very great, insomuch that the Spaniards could no longer resist nor defend the castle, which was now entered. Hereupon they all threw down their arms, and craved quarter for their lives; only the governor of the city would crave no mercy, but killed many of the pirates with his own hands, and not a few of his own soldiers; because they did not stand to their arms. And though the pirates asked him if he would have quarter; yet he constantly answered, "By no means, I had rather die as a valiant soldier, than be hanged as a coward." They endeavoured as much as they could to take him prisoner, but he defended himself so obstinately, that they were forced to kill him, notwithstanding all the cries and tears of his own wife and daughter, who begged him, on their knees, to demand quarter, and save his life. When the pirates had possessed themselves of the castle, which was about night, they enclosed therein all the prisoners, placing the women and men by themselves, with some guards: the wounded were put in an apartment by itself, that their own complaints might be the cure of their diseases; for no other was afforded them.

This done, they fell to eating and drinking, as usual; that is, committing in both all manner of debauchery and excess, so that fifty courageous men might easily have retaken the city, and killed all the pirates. Next day, having plundered all they could find, they examined some of the prisoners (who had been persuaded by their companions to say they were the richest of the town), charging them severely to discover where they had hid their riches and goods. Not being able to extort anything from them, they not being the right persons, it was resolved to torture them: this they did so cruelly, that many of them died on the rack, or presently after. Now the president of Panama being advertised of the pillage and ruin of Puerto Bello, he employed all his care and industry to raise forces to pursue and cast out the pirates thence; but these cared little for his preparations, having their ships at hand, and determining to fire the city, and retreat. They had now been at Puerto Bello fifteen days, in which time they had lost many of their men, both by the unhealthiness of the country, and their extravagant debaucheries.

Hereupon, they prepared to depart, carrying on board all the pillage they had got, having first provided the fleet with sufficient victuals for the voyage. While these things were doing, Captain Morgan demanded of the prisoners a ransom for the city, or else he would burn it down, and blow up all the castles; withal, he commanded them to send speedily two persons, to procure the sum, which was 100,000 pieces of eight. To this effect two men were sent to the president of Panama, who gave him an account of all. The president, having now a body of men ready, set forth towards Puerto Bello, to encounter the pirates before their retreat; but, they, hearing of his coming, instead of flying away, went out to meet him at a narrow passage, which he must pass: here they placed a hundred men, very well armed, which at the first encounter put to flight a good party of those of Panama. This obliged the president to retire for that time, not being yet in a posture of strength to proceed farther. Presently after, he sent a message to Captain Morgan, to tell him, "that if he departed not suddenly with all his forces from Puerto Bello, he ought to expect no quarter for himself, nor his companions, when he should take them, as he hoped soon to do." Captain Morgan, who feared not his threats, knowing he had a secure retreat in his ships, which were at hand, answered, "he would not deliver the castles, before he had received the contribution money he had demanded; which if it were not paid down, he would certainly burn the whole city, and then leave it, demolishing beforehand the castles, and killing the prisoners."

The governor of Panama perceived by this answer that no means would serve to mollify the hearts of the pirates, nor reduce them to reason: hereupon, he determined to leave them, as also those of the city whom he came to relieve, involved in the difficulties of making the best agreement they could. Thus in a few days more the miserable citizens gathered the contributions required, and brought 100,000 pieces of eight to the pirates for a ransom of their cruel captivity: but the president of Panama was much amazed to consider that four hundred men could take such a great city, with so many strong castles, especially having no ordnance, wherewith to raise batteries, and, what was more, knowing the citizens of Puerto Bello had always great repute of being good soldiers themselves, and who never wanted courage in their own defence. This astonishment was so great, as made him send to Captain Morgan, desiring some small pattern of those arms wherewith he had taken with much vigour so great a city. Captain Morgan received this messenger very kindly, and with great civility; and gave him a pistol, and a few small bullets, to carry back to the president his master; telling him, withal, "he desired him to accept that slender pattern of the arms wherewith he had taken Puerto Bello, and keep them for a twelvemonth; after which time he promised to come to Panama, and fetch them away." The governor returned the present very soon to Captain Morgan, giving him thanks for the favour of lending him such weapons as he needed not; and, withal, sent him a ring of gold, with this message, "that he desired him not to give himself the labour of coming to Panama, as he had done to Puerto Bello: for he did assure him, he should not speed so well here, as he had done there."

After this, Captain Morgan (having provided his fleet with all necessaries, and taken with him the best guns of the castles, nailing up the rest) set sail from Puerto Bello with all his ships, and arriving in a few days at Cuba, he sought out a place wherein he might quickly make the dividend of their spoil. They found in ready money 250,000 pieces of eight, besides other merchandises; as cloth, linen, silks, &c. With this rich purchase they sailed thence to their common place of rendezvous, Jamaica. Being arrived, they passed here some time in all sorts of vices and debaucheries, according to their custom; spending very prodigally what others had gained with no small labour and toil.

Конституция (Основной закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик - 1936 год

Конституция (Основной закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Утверждена постановлением Чрезвычайного VIII Съезда Советов Союза Советских Социалистических Республик от 5 декабря 1936 года

Глава I Общественное устройство Статья 1. Союз Советских Социалистических Республик есть социалистическое государство рабочих и крестьян. Статья 2. Политическую основу СССР составляют Советы депутатов трудящихся, выросшие и окрепшие в результате свержения власти помещиков и капиталистов и завоевания диктатуры пролетариата. Статья 3. Вся власть в СССР принадлежит трудящимся города и деревни в лице Советов депутатов трудящихся. Статья 4. Экономическую основу СССР составляют социалистическая система хозяйства и социалистическая собственность на орудия и средства производства, утвердившиеся в результате ликвидации капиталистической системы хозяйства, отмены частной собственности на орудия и средства производства и уничтожения эксплуатации человека человеком. Статья 5. Социалистическая собственность в СССР имеет либо форму государственной собственности (всенародное достояние), либо форму кооперативно-колхозной собственности (собственность отдельных колхозов, собственность кооперативных объединений). Статья 6. Земля, ее недра, воды, леса, заводы, фабрики, шахты, рудники, железнодорожный, водный и воздушный транспорт, банки, средства связи, организованные государством крупные сельскохозяйственные предприятия (совхозы, машинно-тракторные станции и т. п.), а также коммунальные предприятия и основной жилищный фонд в городах и промышленных пунктах являются государственной собственностью, то есть всенародным достоянием. Статья 7.

Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского

Братья Лимбург. Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского. Цикл Времена года. XV век.

«Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского» или, в другой версии перевода, «Роскошный часослов герцога Беррийского» (фр. Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry) - иллюстрированный манускрипт XV века. Самая известная часть изображений часослова, цикл «Времена года» состоит из 12 миниатюр с изображением соответствующих сезону деталей жизни на фоне замков. Создание рукописи началось в первой четверти XV века по заказу Жана, герцога Беррийского. Не была закончена при жизни заказчика и своих главных создателей, братьев Лимбург.

Перевал Дятлова. Смерть, идущая по следу...

Ракитин А.И. Апрель 2010 - ноябрь 2011 гг.

23 января 1959г. из Свердловска выехала группа туристов в составе 10 человек, которая поставила своей задачей пройти по лесам и горам Северного Урала лыжным походом 3-й (наивысшей) категории сложности. За 16 дней участники похода должны были преодолеть на лыжах не менее 350 км. и совершить восхождения на североуральские горы Отортэн и Ойко-Чакур. Формально считалось, что поход организован туристской секцией спортивного клуба Уральского Политехнического Института (УПИ) и посвящён предстоящему открытию 21 съезда КПСС, но из 10 участников четверо студентами не являлись.

Конституция (Основной закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик - 1977 год

Конституция (Основной закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Принята на внеочередной седьмой сессии Верховного Совета СССР девятого созыва 7 октября 1977 года

Великая Октябрьская социалистическая революция, совершенная рабочими и крестьянами России под руководством Коммунистической партии во главе с В. И. Лениным, свергла власть капиталистов и помещиков, разбила оковы угнетения, установила диктатуру пролетариата и создала Советское государство - государство нового типа, основное орудие защиты революционных завоеваний, строительства социализма и коммунизма. Начался всемирно-исторический поворот человечества от капитализма к социализму. Одержав победу в гражданской войне, отразив империалистическую интервенцию, Советская власть осуществила глубочайшие социально-экономические преобразования, навсегда покончила с эксплуатацией человека человеком, с классовыми антагонизмами и национальной враждой. Объединение советских республик в Союз ССР преумножило силы и возможности народов страны в строительстве социализма. Утвердились общественная собственность на средства производства, подлинная демократия для трудящихся масс. Впервые в истории человечества было создано социалистическое общество. Ярким проявлением силы социализма стал немеркнущий подвиг советского народа, его Вооруженных Сил, одержавших историческую победу в Великой Отечественной войне. Эта победа укрепила авторитет и международные позиции СССР, открыла новые благоприятные возможности для роста сил социализма, национального освобождения, демократии и мира во всем мире. Продолжая свою созидательную деятельность, трудящиеся Советского Союза обеспечили быстрое и всестороннее развитие страны, совершенствование социалистического строя. Упрочились союз рабочего класса, колхозного крестьянства и народной интеллигенции, дружба наций и народностей СССР.

Борьба за Красный Петроград

Корнатовский, Н.А.: Л., изд-во «Красной газеты», 1929

В истории Октябрьской революции и гражданской войны в России Петроград занимает исключительное место. Первый коллективный боец в дни великого Октября - Петроград приобрел себе славу и первого героического города в годы тяжелой, изнурительной гражданской войны. В фокусе ожесточенной борьбы за Петроград символически отразились начало и конец классового поединка в России. Корниловское наступление на Петроград в августе - сентябре 1917 г., явившееся походом буржуазно-помещичьей контрреволюции против революционного пролетариата России, знаменовало собой начало кровопролитной гражданской войны. Это наступление было ликвидировано прежде, чем смогло вылиться в определенные реальные формы. Последняя попытка белой гвардии завладеть Петроградом в октябре 1919 г., совпавшая по времени с переходом в решительное наступление на Москву южной контрреволюции, была уже по существу агонией белого дела, ее предсмертными судорогами и увенчалась победой пролетарской революции. Непосредственно на Петроградском фронте была одержана победа не столько над отечественной контрреволюцией, сколько над вдохновлявшей ее мировой буржуазией. Империалистическая политика стран-победительниц в мировой войне получила серьезный удар на северо-западе России, - удар, предвосхитивший победу Советов на всех фронтах гражданской войны.

Конституция (Основной Закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик - 1924 год

Конституция (Основной Закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Утверждена II Съездом Советов Союза ССР от 31 января 1924 года

Центральный Исполнительный Комитет Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, торжественно провозглашая незыблемость основ Советской власти, во исполнение постановления 1 съезда Советов Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, а также на основании Договора об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, принятого на 1 съезде Советов Союза Советских Социалистических Республик в городе Москве 30 декабря 1922 года, и, принимая во внимание поправки и изменения, предложенные центральными исполнительными комитетами союзных республик, постановляет: Декларация об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик и Договор об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик составляют Основной Закон (Конституцию) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Раздел первый Декларация об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Со времени образования советских республик государства, мира раскололись на два лагеря: лагерь капитализма и лагерь социализма. Там, в лагере капитализма — национальная вражда и неравенство колониальное рабство и шовинизм, национальное угнетение и погромы, империалистические зверства и войны. Здесь, в лагере социализма — взаимное доверие и мир, национальная свобода и равенство, мирное сожительство и братское сотрудничество народов. Попытки капиталистического мира на протяжении десятков лет разрешить вопрос о национальности путем совмещения свободного развития народов с системой эксплоатации человека человеком оказались бесплодными. Наоборот, клубок национальных противоречий все более запутывается, угрожая самому существованию капитализма.

Lower Paleolithic reconstructions

Reconstructions of Lower Paleolithic daily life

From some 2.6 million to 300 000 years before present. The dating of the period beginning is rather floating. A new discovery may change it a great deal. It was too much time ago, fossils, artifacts of the period are more like scarce and their interpretations often seem to be confusing. The World is populated by the ancestors of humans, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos. In a way, the split among these may be considered to be the mark of the true beginning of the Lower Paleolithic as a part of human history. It is then that the participants first stepped forward. Presumable early tools are not exemplary enough. Even if being eponymous. It is not exactly clear if they were real tools. And using objects is not an exclusive characteristic of humanity anyway. The use of objects was a purely instinctive practice for many and many hundreds of years. It did not have any principle difference from other animal activities and did not make Homos of Lower and most probably of Middle Paleolithic human in the proper sense of the word. Australopithecus and Homo habilis are typical for the earlier part. Later various subspecies of Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, coexisting much of the period. Occasional use of fire. Later possibly even control of fire.

Путешествие натуралиста вокруг света на корабле «Бигль»

Дарвин, Ч. 1839

Кругосветное путешествие Чарльза Дарвина на корабле «Бигль» в 1831-1836 годах под командованием капитана Роберта Фицроя. Главной целью экспедиции была детальная картографическая съёмка восточных и западных берегов Южной Америки. И основная часть времени пятилетнего плавания «Бигля» была потрачена именно на эти исследования - c 28 февраля 1832 до 7 сентября 1835 года. Следующая задача заключалась в создании системы хронометрических измерений в последовательном ряде точек вокруг земного шара для точного определения меридианов этих точек. Для этого и было необходимо совершить кругосветное путешествие. Так можно было экспериментально подтвердить правильность хронометрического определения долготы: удостовериться, что определение по хронометру долготы любой исходной точки совпадает с такими же определениями долготы этой точки, которое проводилось по возвращению к ней после пересечения земного шара.

The voyage of the Beagle

Charles Darwin, 1839

Preface I have stated in the preface to the first Edition of this work, and in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, that it was in consequence of a wish expressed by Captain Fitz Roy, of having some scientific person on board, accompanied by an offer from him of giving up part of his own accommodations, that I volunteered my services, which received, through the kindness of the hydrographer, Captain Beaufort, the sanction of the Lords of the Admiralty. As I feel that the opportunities which I enjoyed of studying the Natural History of the different countries we visited, have been wholly due to Captain Fitz Roy, I hope I may here be permitted to repeat my expression of gratitude to him; and to add that, during the five years we were together, I received from him the most cordial friendship and steady assistance. Both to Captain Fitz Roy and to all the Officers of the Beagle [1] I shall ever feel most thankful for the undeviating kindness with which I was treated during our long voyage. This volume contains, in the form of a Journal, a history of our voyage, and a sketch of those observations in Natural History and Geology, which I think will possess some interest for the general reader. I have in this edition largely condensed and corrected some parts, and have added a little to others, in order to render the volume more fitted for popular reading; but I trust that naturalists will remember, that they must refer for details to the larger publications which comprise the scientific results of the Expedition.

Немножко Финляндии

Куприн, А.И. Январь 1908

По одну сторону вагона тянется без конца рыжее, кочковатое, снежное болото, по другую - низкий, густой сосняк, и так - более полусуток. За Белоостровом уже с трудом понимают по-русски. К полудню поезд проходит вдоль голых, гранитных громад, и мы в Гельсингфорсе. Так близко от С.-Петербурга, и вот - настоящий европейский город. С вокзала выходим на широкую площадь, величиной с половину Марсова поля. Налево - массивное здание из серого гранита, немного похожее на церковь в готическом стиле. Это новый финский театр. Направо - строго выдержанный национальный Atheneum. Мы находимся в самом сердце города. Идем в гору по Michelsgatan. Так как улица узка, а дома на ней в четыре-пять этажей, то она кажется темноватой, но тем не менее производит нарядное и солидное впечатление. Большинство зданий в стиле модерн, но с готическим оттенком. Фасады домов без карнизов и орнаментов; окна расположены несимметрично, они часто бывают обрамлены со всех четырех сторон каменным гладким плинтусом, точно вставлены в каменное паспарту. На углах здания высятся полукруглые башни, над ними, так же как над чердачными окнами, островерхие крыши. Перед парадным входом устроена лоджия, нечто вроде глубокой пещеры из темного гранита, с массивными дверями, украшенными красной медью, и с электрическими фонарями, старинной, средневековой формы, в виде ящиков из волнистого пузыристого стекла. Уличная толпа культурна и хорошо знает правую сторону. Асфальтовые тротуары широки, городовые стройны, скромно щеголеваты и предупредительно вежливы, на извозчиках синие пальто с белыми металлическими пуговицами, нет крика и суеты, нет разносчиков и нищих. Приятно видеть в этом многолюдье детей.

Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского

Братья Лимбург. Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского. Цикл Времена года. XV век.

«Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского» или, в другой версии перевода, «Роскошный часослов герцога Беррийского» (фр. Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry) - иллюстрированный манускрипт XV века. Самая известная часть изображений часослова, цикл «Времена года» состоит из 12 миниатюр с изображением соответствующих сезону деталей жизни на фоне замков. Создание рукописи началось в первой четверти XV века по заказу Жана, герцога Беррийского. Не была закончена при жизни заказчика и своих главных создателей, братьев Лимбург.

Jacob van Heemskerck (1906)

HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck (1906). Coastal defence ship or pantserschip of the Royal Netherlands Navy / Koninklijke Marine

Jacob van Heemskerck HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck was a coastal defence ship (or simply pantserschip in Dutch) in the Royal Netherlands Navy / Koninklijke Marine. Laid down at Rijkswerf, Amsterdam in 1905. Launched 22 September 1906 and commissioned 22 April 1908. It had a long service history, saw action in World War II as a floating battery both for Netherlands and Germany. Then rebuilt into an accommodation ship after the war and decommissioned only on 13 September 1974. There was also the second vessel of the type, Marten Harpertzoon Tromp. The two were not exactly the same though. Jacob van Heemskerck was slightly smaller and had extra two 150-mm gun installed. Both ships were of a quite unique type, specific to Royal Netherlands Navy. By 1900 Koninklijke Marine practically consisted of two parts, more or less distinct: one for protecting homeland and another mostly concerned with Dutch East Indies defence. Or, in other words, a branch for European affairs and a branch for handling overseas issues. Not only in Dutch East Indies, but also in other parts of the world, where Netherlands had its dominions.