The translator to the reader (of 1684)

THE present Volume, both for its Curiosity and Ingenuity, I dare recommend unto the perusal of our English nation, whose glorious actions it containeth. What relateth unto the curiosity hereof, this Piece, both of Natural and Humane History, was no sooner published in the Dutch Original, than it was snatch't up for the most curious Library's of Holland; it was Translated into Spanish (two impressions thereof being sent into Spain in one year); it was taken notice of by the learned Academy of Paris; and finally recommended as worthy our esteem, by the ingenious Author of the Weekly Memorials for the Ingenious, printed here at London about two years ago. Neither all this undeservedly, seeing it enlargeth our acquaintance of Natural History, so much prized and enquir'd for, by the Learned of this present Age, with several observations not easily to be found in other accounts already received from America: and besides, it informeth us (with huge novelty) of as great and bold attempts, in point of Military conduct and valour, as ever were performed by mankind; without excepting, here, either Alexander the Great, or Julius Cæsar, or the rest of the Nine Worthy's of Fame. Of all which actions, as we cannot confess ourselves to have been ignorant hitherto (the very name of Bucaniers being, as yet, known but unto few of the Ingenious; as their Lives, Laws, and Conversation, are in a manner unto none) so can they not choose but be admired, out of this ingenuous Author, by whosoever is curious to learn the various revolutions of humane affairs. But, more especially by our English Nation; as unto whom these things more narrowly do appertain. We having here more than half the Book filled with the unparallel'd, if not inimitable, adventures and Heroick exploits of our own Country-men, and Relations; whose undaunted, and exemplary courage, when called upon by our King and Country, we ought to emulate.

From whence it hath proceeded, that nothing of this kind was ever, as yet, published in England, I cannot easily determine; except, as some will say, from some secret Ragion di Stato. Let the reason be as t'will; this is certain, so much the more we are obliged unto this present Author, who though a stranger unto our Nation, yet with that Candour and Fidelity hath recorded our Actions, as to render the Metal of our true English Valour to be the more believed and feared abroad, than if these things had been divulged by our selves at home. From hence peradventure will other Nations learn, that the English people are of their Genius more inclinable to act than to write; seeing as well they as we have lived unacquainted with these actions of our Nation, until such time as a Foreign Author to our Country came to tell them.

Besides the merits of this Piece for its curiosity, another point of no less esteem, is the truth and sincerity wherewith everything seemeth to be penned. No greater ornament or dignity can be added unto History, either humane or natural, than truth. All other embellishments, if this be failing, are of little or no esteem; if this be delivered, are either needless or superfluous. What concerneth this requisite in our Author, his lines do everywhere declare the faithfulness and sincerity of his mind. He writeth not by hearsay, but was an eye witness, as he somewhere telleth you, unto all and every one of the bold and hazardous attempts which he relateth. And these he delivereth with such candour of stile, such ingenuity of mind, such plainness of words, such conciseness of periods, so much divested of Rhetorical Hyperboles, or the least flourishes of Eloquence, so hugely void of Passion or national Reflections, as that he strongly perswadeth all-along to the credit of what he saith; yea, raiseth the mind of the Reader to believe these things far greater than what he hath said; and having read him, leaveth onely this scruple or concern behind, that you can read him no longer. In a word, such are his deserts, that some persons peradventure would not stickle to compare him to the Father of Historians, Philip de Comines; at least thus much may be said, with all truth imaginable, that he resembleth that great Author in many of his excellent qualities.

I know some persons have objected against the greatness of these prodigious Adventures, intimating that the resistance our Bucaniers found in America, was everywhere but small. For the Spaniards, say they, in the West Indies, are become of late years nothing less, but rather much more degenerate than in Europe. The continual Peace they have enjoyed in those parts, the defect of Military Discipline, and European souldiers for their Commanders, much contributing hereunto. But more especially, and above all other reasons, the very luxury of the Soil and Riches, the extreme heat of those Countries, and influence of the Stars being such, as totally inclineth their bodies unto an infinite effeminacy and cowardize of minds.

Unto these Reasons I shall only answer in brief. This History will convince them to be manifestly false. For as to the continual Peace here alleadged, we know that no Peace could ever be established beyond the Line, since the first possession of the West-Indies by the Spaniards, till the burning of Panama. At that time, or few months before, Sir William Godolphin by his prudent negotiation in quality of Embassadour for our most Gracious Monarch, did conclude at Madrid a peace to be observed even beyond the Line, and through the whole extent of the Spanish Dominions in the West-Indies. This transaction gave the Spaniards new causes of complaints against our proceedings, that no sooner a Peace had been established for those parts of America, but our forces had taken and burnt both Chagre, St. Catherine, and Panama. But our reply was convincing, That whereas eight or ten months of time had been allowed by Articles for the publishing of the said Peace through all the Dominions of both Monarchies in America, those Hostilities had been committed, not onely without orders from his Majesty of England, but also within the space of the said eight or ten months of time. Until that time the Spanish Inhabitants of America being, as it were, in a perpetual War with Europe, certain it is that no Coasts nor Kingdoms in the World have been more frequently infested nor alarm'd with the invasions of several Nations than theirs. Thus from the very beginning of their Conquests in America, both English, French, Dutch Portuguese, Swedes, Danes, Curlanders, and all other nations that navigate the Ocean, have frequented the West-Indies, and filled them with their robberies and Assaults. From these occasions have they been in continual watch and ward, and kept their Militia in constant exercise, as also their Garrisons pretty well provided and paid; as fearing every sail they discovered at Sea, to be Pirats of one Nation or another. But much more especially, since that Curasao, Tortuga, and Jamaica have been inhabited by English, French, and Dutch, and bred up that race of Hunts-men, than which, no other ever was more desperate, nor more mortal enemies to the Spaniards, called Bucaniers. Now shall we say, that these People, through too long continuation of Peace, have utterly abolished the exercises of War, having been all-along incessantly vexed with the Tumults and Alarms thereof?

In like manner is it false, to accuse their defect of Military Discipline for want of European Commanders. For who knoweth not that all places, both Military and Civil, through those vast dominions of the West-Indies, are provided out of Spain? And those of the Militia most commonly given unto expert Commanders, trained up from their infancy in the Wars of Europe, either in Africa, Milan, Sicily, Naples, or Flanders, fighting against either English, French, Dutch, Portuguese, or Moors? Yea their very Garrisons, if you search them in those parts, will peradventure be found to be stock'd three parts to four with Souldiers both born and bred in the Kingdom of Spain.

From these Considerations it may be inferr'd what little difference ought to be allowed betwixt the Spanish Souldiers, Inhabitants of the West-Indies, and those of Europe. And how little the Soil or Climate hath influenced or caused their Courage to degenerate towards cowardize or baseness of mind. As if the very same Argument, deduced from the nature of that Climate, did not equally militate against the valour of our famous Bucaniers, and represent this to be of as degenerate Metal as theirs.

But nothing can be more clearly evinced, than is the Valour of the American Spaniards, either Souldiers or Officers, by the sequel of this History. What men ever fought more desperately than the Garrison of Chagre? Their number being 314, and of all these, only thirty remaining; of which number scarce ten were unwounded; and among them, not one officer found alive? Were not 600 killed upon the spot at Panama, 500 at Gibraltar, almost as many more at Puerto del Principe, all dying with their Arms in their hands, and facing bravely the Enemy for the defence of their Country and private Concerns? Did not those of the Town of San Pedro both fortifie themselves, lay several Ambuscades, and lastly sell their lives as dear as any European Souldier could do; Lolonois being forced to gain step by step his advance unto the Town, with huge loss both of bloud and men? Many other instances might be produced out of this compendious Volume, of the generous resistance the Spaniards made in several places, though Fortune favoured not their Arms.

Next, as to the personal Valour of many of their Commanders, What man ever behaved himself more briskly than the Governour of Gibraltar, than the Governour of Puerto del Principe, both dying for the defence of their Towns; than Don Alonso del Campo, and others? Or what examples can easily parallel the desperate courage of the Governour of Chagre? who, though the Palizda's were fired, the Terraplens were sunk into the Ditch, the Breaches were entred, the Houses all burnt above him, the whole Castle taken, his men all killed; yet would not admit of any quarter, but chose rather to die under his Arms, being shot into the brain, than surrender himself as a Prisoner unto the Bucaniers. What lion ever fought to the last gasp more obstinately than the Governour of Puerto Velo? who, seeing the Town enter'd by surprizal in the night, one chief Castle blown up into the Air, all the other Forts and Castles taken, his own assaulted several ways, both Religious men and women placed at the front of the Enemy to fix the Ladders against the Walls; yet spared not to kill as many of the said Religious persons as he could. And at last, the walls being scaled, the Castle enter'd and taken, all his own men overcome by fire and sword, who had cast down their Arms, and begged mercy from the Enemy; yet would admit of none for his own life. Yet, with his own hands killed several of his Souldiers, to force them to stand to their Arms, though all were lost. Yea, though his own Wife and Daughter begged of him upon their knees that he would have his life by craving quarter, though the Enemy desired of him the same thing; yet would hearken to no cries nor perswasions, but they were forced to kill him, combating with his Arms in his hands, being not otherwise able to take him Prisoner, as they were desirous to do. Shall these men be said to be influenced with Cowardize, who thus acted to the very last Scene of their own Tragedies? Or shall we rather say that they wanted no Courage, but Fortune? It being certainly true, that he who is killed in a Batel, may be equally couragious with him that killeth. And that whosoever derogateth from the Valour of the Spaniards in the West-Indies, diminisheth in like manner the Courage of the Bucaniers, his own Country-men, who have seemed to act beyond mortal men in America.

Now, to say something concerning John Esquemeling, the first Author of this History. I take him to be a Dutch-man, or at least born in Flanders, notwithstanding that the Spanish Translation representeth him to be a Native of the Kingdom of France. His printing this History originally in Dutch, which doubtless must be his native Tongue, who otherwise was but an illiterate man, together with the very sound of his name, convincing me thereunto. True it is, he set sail from France, and was some years at Tortuga; but neither of these two Arguments, drawn from the History, are prevalent. For were he to be a French-man born, how came he to learn the Dutch language so perfectly as to prefer it to his own? Especially that not being spoken at Tortuga nor Jamaica, where he resided all the while.

I hope I have made this English Translation something more plain and correct than the Spanish. Some few notorious faults either of the Printer or the Interpreter, I am sure I have redressed. But the Spanish Translator complaining much of the intricacy of Stile in the Original (as flowing from a person who, as hath been said, was no Scholar) as he was pardonable, being in great haste, for not rendring his own Version so distinct and elaborate as he could desire; so must I be excused from the one, that is to say, Elegancy, if I have cautiously declined the other, I mean Confusion.

Таблица 3

«Шнелльботы». Германские торпедные катера Второй мировой войны. «Шнелльботы» на войне. Крупные боевые корабли, потопленные и поврежденные германскими торпедными катерами : Таблица

Шнелльботы : Крупные боевые корабли, потопленные и поврежденные германскими торпедными катерами Класс Название Страна Дата Район атаки Атаковавший катер Потоплены торпедным оружием ЛД «Ягуар» Франция 23.5.1940 у Дюнкерка S-21, S-23 ЭМ «Уейкфул» Англия 29.5.1940 у Дюнкерка S-30 ЭМ «Сирокко» Франция 31.5.1940 у Дюнкерка S-23, S-26 ЭскМ «Эксмур» Англия 25.2.1941 вост. побережье Англии S-30 ЭМ «Вортиджерн» Англия 15.3.1942 вост. побережье Англии S-104 ЭМ «Хейсти» Англия 15.6.1942 Ливия S-55 ЭскМ «Пенилан» Англия 3.12.1942 зап. часть Ла-Манша S-115 ЭМ «Лайтнинг» Англия 12.3.1943 Тунис S-158 или S-55 ЭскМ «Эскдейл» Норвегия 13.4.1943 зап.

Chapter II

The pirates of Panama or The buccaneers of America : Chapter II

A description of Tortuga The fruits and plants there How the French first settled there, at two several times, and forced out the Spaniards The author twice sold in the said island. THE island of Tortuga is situate on the north side of Hispaniola, in 20 deg. 30 min. latitude; its just extent is threescore leagues about. The Spaniards, who gave name to this island, called it so from the shape of the land, in some manner resembling a great sea-tortoise, called by them Tortuga-de-mar. The country is very mountainous, and full of rocks, and yet thick of lofty trees, that grow upon the hardest of those rocks, without partaking of a softer soil. Hence it comes that their roots, for the greatest part, are seen naked, entangled among the rocks like the branching of ivy against our walls. That part of this island which stretches to the north is totally uninhabited: the reason is, first, because it is incommodious, and unhealthy: and, secondly, for the ruggedness of the coast, that gives no access to the shore, unless among rocks almost inaccessible: for this cause it is peopled only on the south part, which hath only one port indifferently good: yet this harbour has two entries, or channels, which afford passage to ships of seventy guns; the port itself being without danger, and capable of receiving a great number of vessels. The inhabited parts, of which the first is called the Low-Lands, or Low-Country: this is the chief among the rest, because it contains the port aforesaid. The town is called Cayona, and here live the chiefest and richest planters of the island.

Государственная дума и тактика социал-демократии

Сталин И.В. Cочинения. - Т. 1. - М.: ОГИЗ; Государственное издательство политической литературы, 1946. С. 206–213.

Вы, наверное, слышали об освобождении крестьян, Это было время, когда правительство получало двойной удар: извне – поражение в Крыму, изнутри – крестьянское движение. Потому-то правительство, подхлёстываемое с двух сторон, вынуждено было уступить и заговорило об освобождении крестьян: "Мы должны сами освободить крестьян сверху, а то народ восстанет и собственными руками добьется освобождения снизу". Мы знаем, что это было за "освобождение сверху"... И если тогда народ поддался обману, если правительству удались его фарисейские планы, если оно с помощью реформ укрепило свое положение и тем самым отсрочило победу народа, то это, между прочим, означает, что тогда народ еще не был подготовлен и его легко можно было обмануть. Такая же история повторяется в жизни России и теперь. Как известно, и теперь правительство получает такой же двойной удар: извне – поражение в Манчжурии, изнутри – народная революция. Как известно, правительство, подхлестываемое с двух сторон, принуждено еще раз уступить и так же, как и тогда, [c.206] толкует о "реформах сверху": "Мы должны дать народу Государственную думу сверху, а то народ восстанет и сам созовет Учредительное собрание снизу". Таким образом, созывом Думы они хотят утихомирить народную революцию, точно так же, как уже однажды "освобождением крестьян" утихомирили великое крестьянское движение. Отсюда наша задача – со всей решимостью расстроить планы реакции, смести Государственную думу и тем самым расчистить путь народной революции. Но что такое Дума, из кого она состоит? Дума – это ублюдочный парламент.

Договор об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик

Договор об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. 30 декабря 1922 года

Российская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Республика (РСФСР), Украинская Социалистическая Советская Республика (УССР), Белорусская Социалистическая Советская Республика (БССР) и Закавказская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Республика (ЗСФСР - Грузия, Азербейджан и Армения) заключают настоящий Союзный договор об объединении в одно союзное государство - «Союз Советских Социалистических Республик» - на следующих основаниях. 1.

Воспоминания кавказского офицера : II

Воспоминания кавказского офицера : II

Не стану описывать подробно моего путешествия от Тифлиса до границ Абхазии; оно было весьма незанимательно. Зимнее время скрывало от мен живописную сторону богатой имеретинской и мингрельской природы. Плохие дороги, дурные ночлеги, холод, грязь и снег попеременно преследовали меня от начала до конца путешествия. До Сурама я ехал на русских почтовых телегах; всем известно, как они покойны. Через Сурамские горы и далее приходилось ехать верхом, на казачьих переменных лошадях. В Кутаисе я остановился на несколько дней, чтобы явиться к управляющему Имеретией, начальнику абхазского действующего отряда, знавшему только о моем гласном назначении находиться при войсках в Абхазии, так как в Тифлисе признано было необходимым никому не поверять тайны моего настоящего поручения, для того чтобы предохранить меня от последствий всякой даже неумышленной нескромности. Далее я продолжал свой путь без отдыха. От самого Кутаиса я не пользовался другим помещением, кроме постовых плетневых хижин, ночуя в них, по кавказскому обыкновению, на земле, окутанный в бурку вместо постели и одеяла; поэтому я немало обрадовался, услышав шум моря, означавший близость Редут-Кале, в котором я ожидал найти некоторое вознаграждение за испытанные мною лишения. Когда мы подъехали к Редуту, совершенно смерклось, и только эта темнота помешала моему преждевременному разочарованию. Редут-Кале — земляное укрепление, построенное на берегу моря, около устья реки Хопи, посреди непроходимых болот, — был в то время забытый уголок, в котором прозябали изнуренные лихорадками несколько солдат, офицеров и карантинных и таможенных чиновников.

1871 - 1914

From 1871 to 1914

From the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 to the beginning of World War I in 1914.

Часть IV. Работа в «Рыбпроме». Подготовка к побегу

Записки «вредителя». Часть IV. Работа в «Рыбпроме». Подготовка к побегу

XVI. Еще один допрос

Побег из ГУЛАГа. Часть 1. XVI. Еще один допрос

— Так-с! так-с! Здравствуйте, садитесь. Как поживаете? — любезно встречает следователь, сидя в маленьком, сравнительно чистом кабинетике. — Спасибо, прекрасно. — Прекрасно? Смеетесь? Посмеиваетесь? И долго еще будете смеяться? — Пока «в расход» не спишете. — Недолго, недолго ждать придется, — загромыхал опять любезный следователь. — Семь копеек, расход небольшой, а что касается вас, тоже расход не велик — такого специалиста потерять. Впрочем, разговор этот, который, как и предыдущий, трудно было бы назвать допросом, велся, можно сказать, в «веселых» тонах. В окно виднелось синее еще от вечернего света весеннее небо. Голые, но уже гибкие от тепла ветки дерева шуршали по стеклу. За окном приближалась весна, жили люди и свободно глядели на синее небо, а здесь... какую гадость надо еще вытерпеть, пока выведут «в расход». Смерти я не боюсь, слишком тяжко и гадко так жить, но противно, что будет перед смертью. Куда потащат? Какую гадость придется слышать напоследок? Потом мешок на голову и пулю в затылок. Или без мешка? Неба и того не увидишь перед смертью. — Замечтались? — прерывает меня следователь после порядочного промежутка времени: пока он курил, я молча смотрела в окно. — Ну-с, а что же вы нам о вашем муженьке расскажете? — А что вам надо знать? — Что мне надо знать? Ха, ха. Все надо знать. Все вываливайте. Расскажите, расскажите. Я люблю, когда мне рассказывают. Он закурил папиросу и небрежно развалился в кресле.

1945 - 1991

С 1945 по 1991 год

Холодная война. С конца Второй мировой войны в 1945 до распада СССР в 1991.

Chapter XVIII

The pirates of Panama or The buccaneers of America : Chapter XVIII

Captain Morgan sends canoes and boats to the South Sea He fires the city of Panama Robberies and cruelties committed there by the pirates, till their return to the Castle of Chagre. CAPTAIN MORGAN, as soon as he had placed necessary guards at several quarters within and without the city, commanded twenty-five men to seize a great boat, which had stuck in the mud of the port, for want of water, at a low tide. The same day about noon, he caused fire privately to be set to several great edifices of the city, nobody knowing who were the authors thereof, much less on what motives Captain Morgan did it, which are unknown to this day: the fire increased so, that before night the greatest part of the city was in a flame. Captain Morgan pretended the Spaniards had done it, perceiving that his own people reflected on him for that action. Many of the Spaniards, and some of the pirates, did what they could, either to quench the flame, or, by blowing up houses with gunpowder, and pulling down others, to stop it, but in vain: for in less than half an hour it consumed a whole street. All the houses of the city were built with cedar, very curious and magnificent, and richly adorned, especially with hangings and paintings, whereof part were before removed, and another great part were consumed by fire. There were in this city (which is the see of a bishop) eight monasteries, seven for men, and one for women; two stately churches, and one hospital. The churches and monasteries were all richly adorned with altar-pieces and paintings, much gold and silver, and other precious things, all which the ecclesiastics had hidden.

1. Состав туристической группы. История похода

Перевал Дятлова. Смерть, идущая по следу... 1. Состав туристической группы. История похода

23 января 1959г. из Свердловска выехала группа туристов в составе 10 человек, которая поставила своей задачей пройти по лесам и горам Северного Урала лыжным походом 3-й (наивысшей) категории сложности. За 16 дней участники похода д.б. преодолеть на лыжах не менее 350 км. и совершить восхождения на североуральские горы Отортэн и Ойко-Чакур. Формально считалось, что поход организован туристской секцией спортивного клуба Уральского Политехнического Института (УПИ) и посвящён предстоящему открытию 21 съезда КПСС, но из 10 участников четверо студентами не являлись. Кратко остановимся на персональном составе группы, поскольку в ходе дальнейшего повествования имена и фамилии этих людей будут упоминаться постоянно. Итак: - Дятлов Игорь Алексеевич, 1937 г.р., руководитель похода, студент 5-го курса радиотехнического факультета УПИ, высокоэрудированный специалист и, безусловно, талантливый инженер. Уже на 2-м курсе Игорь разработал и собрал УКВ-радиостанции, которые использовались для связи двух групп во время турпохода в 1956 г. по Саянам. Кстати, с этими радиостанциями был связан весьма неприятный для самолюбия Дятлова инцидент: при распределении весовой нагрузки между участниками похода Игорь завысил их вес на 3 кг. Сделал это он для того, чтобы ему в рюкзак не положили лишнего груза. Дятлов был пойман на лжи на третий день похода, изобличён и претерпел, должно быть, немало неприятных минут. Произошедшее, впрочем, вовсе не отменяет его безусловного инженерного таланта. Он являлся разработчиком малоразмерной печки, которая использовалась в походах в 1958-59 гг. и доказала свою функциональность.

V. Все же счастливое время

Побег из ГУЛАГа. Часть 1. V. Все же счастливое время

Голод тянулся приблизительно три года, с 1918 по 1921. Для большевиков это был период военного коммунизма, когда они готовы были перестроить не только старую Русь, но и весь мир. Для народа это был голод, иначе этого времени никто и не зовет. Большевики задавались в это время самыми дерзкими, несбыточными «гениальными» идеями, сидя в Кремле, в теплых квартирах, обеспеченные чрезвычайными пайками, защищаемые ЧК и Красной Армией. Страна мерла от голода и тифа. Когда, с отчаяния, дико и стихийно восставали деревни, округа, почти губернии, отряды Красной Армии истребляли поголовно мужиков, баб, ребятишек; деревни выжигали. Крепкие партийцы пожимали плечами: если капиталисты имеют право посылать миллионы на бессмысленную империалистическую бойню, почему нельзя пожертвовать несколькими десятками тысяч ради счастливого социалистического будущего? Только когда разрозненные деревенские восстания стали перекидываться в города, и взбунтовался оплот, твердыня, «цитадель революции» — Кронштадт, Ленин отступил и дал НЭП — новую экономическую политику, расправившись, впрочем, предварительно с восставшими матросами. Для коммунистов НЭП — позор, постыдное отступление. Одно напоминание о нем — контрреволюция, хотя его и объявил сам Ленин — «всерьез и надолго». Для страны НЭП был спасением от голода. Продразверстка, то есть натуральное обложение крестьянских хозяйств, произвольное и непосильное, была заменена продналогом — высоким, но все же определенным.