Chapter XVIII


Captain Morgan sends canoes and boats to the South Sea
He fires the city of Panama
Robberies and cruelties committed there by the pirates, till their return to the Castle of Chagre.


CAPTAIN MORGAN, as soon as he had placed necessary guards at several quarters within and without the city, commanded twenty-five men to seize a great boat, which had stuck in the mud of the port, for want of water, at a low tide. The same day about noon, he caused fire privately to be set to several great edifices of the city, nobody knowing who were the authors thereof, much less on what motives Captain Morgan did it, which are unknown to this day: the fire increased so, that before night the greatest part of the city was in a flame. Captain Morgan pretended the Spaniards had done it, perceiving that his own people reflected on him for that action. Many of the Spaniards, and some of the pirates, did what they could, either to quench the flame, or, by blowing up houses with gunpowder, and pulling down others, to stop it, but in vain: for in less than half an hour it consumed a whole street. All the houses of the city were built with cedar, very curious and magnificent, and richly adorned, especially with hangings and paintings, whereof part were before removed, and another great part were consumed by fire.

There were in this city (which is the see of a bishop) eight monasteries, seven for men, and one for women; two stately churches, and one hospital. The churches and monasteries were all richly adorned with altar-pieces and paintings, much gold and silver, and other precious things, all which the ecclesiastics had hidden. Besides which, here were two thousand houses of magnificent building, the greatest part inhabited by merchants vastly rich. For the rest of less quality, and tradesmen, this city contained five thousand more. Here were also many stables for the horses and mules that carry the plate of the king of Spain, as well as private men, towards the North Sea. The neighbouring fields are full of fertile plantations and pleasant gardens, affording delicious prospects to the inhabitants all the year.

The Genoese had in this city a stately house for their trade of negroes. This likewise was by Captain Morgan burnt to the very ground. Besides which building, there were consumed two hundred warehouses, and many slaves, who had hid themselves therein, with innumerable sacks of meal; the fire of which continued four weeks after it had begun. The greatest part of the pirates still encamped without the city, fearing and expecting the Spaniards would come and fight them anew, it being known they much outnumbered the pirates. This made them keep the field, to preserve their forces united, now much diminished by their losses. Their wounded, which were many, they put into one church, which remained standing, the rest being consumed by the fire. Besides these decreases of their men, Captain Morgan had sent a convoy of one hundred and fifty men to the castle of Chagre, to carry the news of his victory at Panama.

They saw often whole troops of Spaniards run to and fro in the fields, which made them suspect their rallying, which they never had the courage to do. In the afternoon Captain Morgan re-entered the city with his troops, that every one might take up their lodgings, which now they could hardly find, few houses having escaped the fire. Then they sought very carefully among the ruins and ashes, for utensils of plate or gold, that were not quite wasted by the flames: and of such they found no small number, especially in wells and cisterns, where the Spaniards had hid them.

Next day Captain Morgan dispatched away two troops, of one hundred and fifty men each, stout and well armed, to seek for the inhabitants who were escaped. These having made several excursions up and down the fields, woods, and mountains adjacent, returned after two days, bringing above two hundred prisoners, men, women, and slaves. The same day returned also the boat which Captain Morgan had sent to the South Sea, bringing three other boats which they had taken. But all these prizes they could willingly have given, and greater labour into the bargain, for one galleon, which miraculously escaped, richly laden with all the king's plate, jewels, and other precious goods of the best and richest merchants of Panama: on board which were also the religious women of the nunnery, who had embarked with them all the ornaments of their church, consisting in much gold, plate, and other things of great value.

The strength of this galleon was inconsiderable, having only seven guns, and ten or twelve muskets, and very ill provided with victuals, necessaries, and fresh water, having no more sails than the uppermost of the mainmast. This account the pirates received from some one who had spoken with seven mariners belonging to the galleon, who came ashore in the cockboat for fresh water. Hence they concluded they might easily have taken it, had they given her chase, as they should have done; but they were impeded from following this vastly rich prize, by their gluttony and drunkenness, having plentifully debauched themselves with several rich wines they found ready, choosing rather to satiate their appetites than to lay hold on such huge advantage; since this only prize would have been of far greater value than all they got at Panama, and the places thereabout. Next day, repenting of their negligence, being weary of their vices and debaucheries, they set forth another boat, well armed, to pursue with all speed the said galleon; but in vain, the Spaniards who were on board having had intelligence of their own danger one or two days before, while the pirates were cruising so near them; whereupon they fled to places more remote and unknown.

The pirates found, in the ports of the island of Tavoga and Tavogilla, several boats laden with very good merchandise; all which they took, and brought to Panama, where they made an exact relation of all that had passed to Captain Morgan. The prisoners confirmed what the pirates said, adding, that they undoubtedly knew where the galleon might then be, but that it was very probable they had been relieved before now from other places. This stirred up Captain Morgan anew, to send forth all the boats in the port of Panama to seek the said galleon till they could find her. These boats, being in all four, after eight days' cruising to and fro, and searching several ports and creeks, lost all hopes of finding her: hereupon they returned to Tavoga and Tavogilla; here they found a reasonable good ship newly come from Payta, laden with cloth, soap, sugar, and biscuit, with 20,000 pieces of eight; this they instantly seized, without the least resistance; as also a boat which was not far off, on which they laded great part of the merchandises from the ship, with some slaves. With this purchase they returned to Panama, somewhat better satisfied; yet, withal, much discontented that they could not meet with the galleon.

The convoy which Captain Morgan had sent to the castle of Chagre returned much about the same time, bringing with them very good news; for while Captain Morgan was on his journey to Panama, those he had left in the castle of Chagre had sent for two boats to cruise. These met with a Spanish ship, which they chased within sight of the castle. This being perceived by the pirates in the castle, they put forth Spanish colours, to deceive the ship that fled before the boats; and the poor Spaniards, thinking to take refuge under the castle, were caught in a snare, and made prisoners. The cargo on board the said vessel consisted in victuals and provisions, than which nothing could be more opportune for the castle, where they began already to want things of this kind.

This good luck of those of Chagre caused Captain Morgan to stay longer at Panama, ordering several new excursions into the country round about; and while the pirates at Panama were upon these expeditions, those at Chagre were busy in piracies on the North Sea. Captain Morgan sent forth, daily, parties of two hundred men, to make inroads into all the country round about; and when one party came back, another went forth, who soon gathered much riches, and many prisoners. These being brought into the city, were put to the most exquisite tortures, to make them confess both other people's goods and their own. Here it happened that one poor wretch was found in the house of a person of quality, who had put on, amidst the confusion, a pair of taffety breeches of his master's, with a little silver key hanging out; perceiving which, they asked him for the cabinet of the said key. His answer was, he knew not what was become of it, but that finding those breeches in his master's house, he had made bold to wear them. Not being able to get any other answer, they put him on the rack, and inhumanly disjointed his arms; then they twisted a cord about his forehead, which they wrung so hard that his eyes appeared as big as eggs, and were ready to fall out. But with these torments not obtaining any positive answer, they hung him up by the wrists, giving him many blows and stripes under that intolerable pain and posture of body. Afterwards they cut off his nose and ears, and singed his face with burning straw, till he could not speak, nor lament his misery any longer: then, losing all hopes of any confession, they bade a negro run him through, which put an end to his life, and to their inhuman tortures. Thus did many others of those miserable prisoners finish their days, the common sport and recreation of these pirates being such tragedies.

Captain Morgan having now been at Panama full three weeks, commanded all things to be prepared for his departure. He ordered every company of men to seek so many beasts of carriage as might convey the spoil to the river where his canoes lay. About this time there was a great rumour, that a considerable number of pirates intended to leave Captain Morgan; and that, taking a ship then in port, they determined to go and rob on the South Sea, till they had got as much as they thought fit, and then return homewards, by way of the East Indies. For which purpose they had gathered much provisions, which they had hid in private places, with sufficient powder, bullets, and all other ammunition: likewise some great guns belonging to the town, muskets, and other things, wherewith they designed not only to equip their vessel, but to fortify themselves in some island which might serve them for a place of refuge.

This design had certainly taken effect, had not Captain Morgan had timely advice of it from one of their comrades: hereupon he commanded the mainmast of the said ship to be cut down and burnt, with all the other boats in the port: hereby the intentions of all or most of his companions were totally frustrated. Then Captain Morgan sent many of the Spaniards into the adjoining fields and country to seek for money, to ransom not only themselves, but the rest of the prisoners, as likewise the ecclesiastics. Moreover, he commanded all the artillery of the town to be nailed and stopped up. At the same time he sent out a strong company of men to seek for the governor of Panama, of whom intelligence was brought, that he had laid several ambuscades in the way by which he ought to return: but they returned soon after, saying they had not found any sign of any such ambuscades. For confirmation whereof, they brought some prisoners, who declared that the said governor had had an intention of making some opposition by the way, but that the men designed to effect it were unwilling to undertake it: so that for want of means he could not put his design in execution.

February 24, 1671, Captain Morgan departed from Panama, or rather from the place where the city of Panama stood; of the spoils whereof he carried with him one hundred and seventy-five beasts of carriage, laden with silver, gold, and other precious things, beside about six hundred prisoners, men, women, children and slaves. That day they came to a river that passes through a delicious plain, a league from Panama: here Captain Morgan put all his forces into good order, so as that the prisoners were in the middle, surrounded on all sides with pirates, where nothing else was to be heard but lamentations, cries, shrieks, and doleful sighs of so many women and children, who feared Captain Morgan designed to transport them all into his own country for slaves. Besides, all those miserable prisoners endured extreme hunger and thirst at that time, which misery Captain Morgan designedly caused them to sustain, to excite them to seek for money to ransom themselves, according to the tax he had set upon every one. Many of the women begged Captain Morgan, on their knees, with infinite sighs and tears, to let them return to Panama, there to live with their dear husbands and children in little huts of straw, which they would erect, seeing they had no houses till the rebuilding of the city. But his answer was, "He came not thither to hear lamentations and cries, but to seek money: therefore they ought first to seek out that, wherever it was to be had, and bring it to him; otherwise he would assuredly transport them all to such places whither they cared not to go."

Next day, when the march began, those lamentable cries and shrieks were renewed, so as it would have caused compassion in the hardest heart: but Captain Morgan, as a man little given to mercy, was not moved in the least. They marched in the same order as before, one party of the pirates in the van, the prisoners in the middle, and the rest of the pirates in the rear; by whom the miserable Spaniards were at every step punched and thrust in their backs and sides, with the blunt ends of their arms, to make them march faster.

A beautiful lady, wife to one of the richest merchants of Tavoga, was led prisoner by herself, between two pirates. Her lamentations pierced the skies, seeing herself carried away into captivity often crying to the pirates, and telling them, "That she had given orders to two religious persons, in whom she had relied, to go to a certain place, and fetch so much money as her ransom did amount to; that they had promised faithfully to do it, but having obtained the money, instead of bringing it to her, they had employed it another way, to ransom some of their own, and particular friends." This ill action of theirs was discovered by a slave, who brought a letter to the said lady. Her complaints, and the cause thereof, being brought to Captain Morgan, he thought fit to inquire thereinto. Having found it to be true—especially hearing it confirmed by the confession of the said religious men, though under some frivolous exercises of having diverted the money but for a day or two, in which time they expected more sums to repay it—he gave liberty to the said lady, whom otherwise he designed to transport to Jamaica. But he detained the said religious men as prisoners in her place, using them according to their deserts.

Captain Morgan arriving at the town called Cruz, on the banks of the river Chagre, he published an order among the prisoners, that within three days every one should bring in their ransom, under the penalty of being transported to Jamaica. Meanwhile he gave orders for so much rice and maize to be collected thereabouts, as was necessary for victualling his ships. Here some of the prisoners were ransomed, but many others could not bring in their money. Hereupon he continued his voyage, leaving the village on the 5th of March following, carrying with him all the spoil he could. Hence he likewise led away some new prisoners, inhabitants there, with those in Panama, who had not paid their ransoms. But the two religious men, who had diverted the lady's money, were ransomed three days after by other persons, who had more compassion for them than they had showed for her.

About the middle of the way to Chagre, Captain Morgan commanded them to be mustered, and caused every one to be sworn, that they had concealed nothing, even not to the value of sixpence. This done, Captain Morgan knowing those lewd fellows would not stick to swear falsely for interest, he commanded every one to be searched very strictly, both in their clothes and satchels, and elsewhere. Yea, that this order might not be ill taken by his companions, he permitted himself to be searched, even to his very shoes. To this effect, by common consent, one was assigned out of every company to be searchers of the rest. The French pirates that assisted on this expedition disliked this new practice of searching; but, being outnumbered by the English, they were forced to submit as well as the rest. The search being over, they re-embarked, and arrived at the castle of Chagre on the 9th of March. Here they found all things in good order, excepting the wounded men whom they had left at their departure; for of these the greatest number were dead of their wounds.

From Chagre, Captain Morgan sent, presently after his arrival, a great boat to Puerto Bello, with all the prisoners taken at the isle of St. Catherine, demanding of them a considerable ransom for the castle of Chagre, where he then was; threatening otherwise to ruin it. To this those of Puerto Bello answered, they would not give one farthing towards the ransom of the said castle, and the English might do with it as they pleased. Hereupon the dividend was made of all the spoil made in that voyage; every company, and every particular person therein, receiving their proportion, or rather what part thereof Captain Morgan pleased to give them. For the rest of his companions, even of his own nation, murmured at his proceedings, and told him to his face that he had reserved the best jewels to himself: for they judged it impossible that no greater share should belong to them than two hundred pieces of eight, per capita, of so many valuable plunders they had made; which small sum they thought too little for so much labour, and such dangers, as they had been exposed to. But Captain Morgan was deaf to all this, and many other like complaints, having designed to cheat them of what he could.

At last, finding himself obnoxious to many censures of his people, and fearing the consequence, he thought it unsafe to stay any longer at Chagre, but ordered the ordnance of the castle to be carried on board his ship; then he caused most of the walls to be demolished, the edifices to be burnt, and as many other things ruined as could be done in a short time. This done, he went secretly on board his own ship, without giving any notice to his companions, and put out to sea, being only followed by three or four vessels of the whole fleet. These were such (as the French pirates believed) as went shares with Captain Morgan in the best part of the spoil, which had been concealed from them in the dividend. The Frenchmen could willingly have revenged themselves on Captain Morgan and his followers, had they been able to encounter him at sea; but they were destitute of necessaries, and had much ado to find sufficient provisions for their voyage to Jamaica, he having left them unprovided for all things.

THE END

The voyage of the Beagle

Charles Darwin, 1839

Preface I have stated in the preface to the first Edition of this work, and in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, that it was in consequence of a wish expressed by Captain Fitz Roy, of having some scientific person on board, accompanied by an offer from him of giving up part of his own accommodations, that I volunteered my services, which received, through the kindness of the hydrographer, Captain Beaufort, the sanction of the Lords of the Admiralty. As I feel that the opportunities which I enjoyed of studying the Natural History of the different countries we visited, have been wholly due to Captain Fitz Roy, I hope I may here be permitted to repeat my expression of gratitude to him; and to add that, during the five years we were together, I received from him the most cordial friendship and steady assistance. Both to Captain Fitz Roy and to all the Officers of the Beagle [1] I shall ever feel most thankful for the undeviating kindness with which I was treated during our long voyage. This volume contains, in the form of a Journal, a history of our voyage, and a sketch of those observations in Natural History and Geology, which I think will possess some interest for the general reader. I have in this edition largely condensed and corrected some parts, and have added a little to others, in order to render the volume more fitted for popular reading; but I trust that naturalists will remember, that they must refer for details to the larger publications which comprise the scientific results of the Expedition.

Конституция (Основной Закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик - 1924 год

Конституция (Основной Закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Утверждена II Съездом Советов Союза ССР от 31 января 1924 года

Центральный Исполнительный Комитет Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, торжественно провозглашая незыблемость основ Советской власти, во исполнение постановления 1 съезда Советов Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, а также на основании Договора об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, принятого на 1 съезде Советов Союза Советских Социалистических Республик в городе Москве 30 декабря 1922 года, и, принимая во внимание поправки и изменения, предложенные центральными исполнительными комитетами союзных республик, постановляет: Декларация об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик и Договор об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик составляют Основной Закон (Конституцию) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Раздел первый Декларация об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Со времени образования советских республик государства, мира раскололись на два лагеря: лагерь капитализма и лагерь социализма. Там, в лагере капитализма — национальная вражда и неравенство колониальное рабство и шовинизм, национальное угнетение и погромы, империалистические зверства и войны. Здесь, в лагере социализма — взаимное доверие и мир, национальная свобода и равенство, мирное сожительство и братское сотрудничество народов. Попытки капиталистического мира на протяжении десятков лет разрешить вопрос о национальности путем совмещения свободного развития народов с системой эксплоатации человека человеком оказались бесплодными. Наоборот, клубок национальных противоречий все более запутывается, угрожая самому существованию капитализма.

Lower Paleolithic by Zdenek Burian

Zdenek Burian : Reconstruction of Lower Paleolithic daily life

Australopithecinae or Australopithecina is a group of extinct hominids. The Australopithecus, the best known among them, lived in Africa from around 4 million to somewhat after 2 million years ago. Pithecanthropus is a subspecies of Homo erectus, if the word is used as the name for the Java Man. Or sometimes a synonym for all the Homo erectus populations. Homo erectus species lived from 1.9 million years ago to 70 000 years ago. Or even 13 000 - 12 000, if Homo floresiensis (link 1, link 2), Flores Man is a form of Homo erectus. Reconstruction of Lower Paleolithic everyday life by Zdenek Burian, an influential 20th century palaeo-artist, painter and book illustrator from Czechoslovakia. Australopithecus and pithecanthropus are depicted somewhat less anthropomorphic than the more contemporary artists and scientists tend to picture them today.

«Шнелльботы». Германские торпедные катера Второй мировой войны

Морозов, М. Э.: М., АОЗТ редакция журнала «Моделист-конструктор», 1999

Британский историк Питер Смит, известный своими исследованиями боевых действий в Ла-Манше и южной части Северного моря, написал о «шнелльботах», что «к концу войны они оставались единственной силой, не подчинившейся британскому господству на море». Не оставляет сомнения, что в лице «шнелльбота» немецким конструкторам удалось создать отличный боевой корабль. Как ни странно, этому способствовал отказ от высоких скоростных показателей, и, как следствие, возможность оснастить катера дизельными двигателями. Такое решение положительно сказалось на улучшении живучести «москитов». Ни один из них не погиб от случайного возгорания, что нередко происходило в английском и американском флотах. Увеличенное водоизмещение позволило сделать конструкцию катеров весьма устойчивой к боевым повреждениям. Скользящий таранный удар эсминца, подрыв на мине или попадание 2-3 снарядов калибра свыше 100-мм не приводили, как правило, к неизбежной гибели катера (например, 15 марта 1942 года S-105 пришел своим ходом в базу, получив около 80 пробоин от осколков, пуль и снарядов малокалиберных пушек), хотя часто «шнелльботы» приходилось уничтожать из-за условий тактической обстановки. Еще одной особенностью, резко вы­делявшей «шнелльботы» из ряда тор­педных катеров других стран, стала ог­ромная по тем временам дальность плавания - до 800-900 миль 30-узловым ходом (М. Уитли в своей работе «Deutsche Seestreitkraefte 1939-1945» называет даже большую цифру-870 миль 39-узловым ходом, во что, однако, трудно поверить). Фактически германское командование даже не могло ее пол­ностью реализовать из-за большого риска использовать катера в светлое время суток, особенно со второй половины войны. Значительный радиус действия, несвойственные катерам того времени вытянутые круглоскулые обводы и внушительные размеры, по мнению многих, ставили германские торпедные катера в один ряд с миноносцами. С этим можно согласиться с той лишь оговоркой, что всетаки «шнелльботы» оставались торпедными, а не торпедно-артиллерийскими кораблями. Спектр решаемых ими задач был намного уже, чем у миноносцев Второй мировой войны. Проводя аналогию с современной классификацией «ракетный катер» - «малый ракетный корабль», «шнелльботы» правильнее считать малыми торпедными кораблями. Удачной оказалась и конструкция корпуса. Полубак со встроенными тор­педными аппаратами улучшал мореходные качества - «шнелльботы» сохраняли возможность использовать оружие при волнении до 4-5 баллов, а малая высота борта и рубки весьма существенно уменьшали силуэт. В проведенных англичанами после войны сравнительных испытаниях германских и британских катеров выяснилось, что в ночных условиях «немец» визуально замечал противника раньше. Большие нарекания вызывало оружие самообороны - артиллерия. Не имея возможности строить параллельно с торпедными катерами их артиллерийские аналоги, как это делали англичане, немцы с конца 1941 года начали проигрывать «москитам» противника. Позднейшие попытки усилить огневую мощь «шнелльботов» до некоторой степени сократили это отставание, но полностью ликвидировать его не удалось. По части оснащения техническими средствами обнаружения германские катера также серьезно отставали от своих противников. За всю войну они так и не получили более-менее удовлетворительного малогабаритного радара. С появлением станции радиотехнической разведки «Наксос» немцы лишили врага преимущества внезапности, однако не решили проблему обнаружения целей. Таким образом, несмотря на определенные недостатки, в целом германские торпедные катера не только соответствовали предъявляемым требованиям, но и по праву считались одними из лучших представителей своего класса времен Второй мировой войны. Морская коллекция.

Cueva de las Manos

Cueva de las Manos. Some time between 11 000 and 7 500 BC.

The Cueva de las Manos in Patagonia (Argentina), a cave or a series of caves, is best known for its assemblage of cave art executed between 11 000 and 7 500 BC. The name of «Cueva de las Manos» stands for «Cave of Hands» in Spanish. It comes from its most famous images - numerous paintings of hands, left ones predominantly. The images of hands are negative painted or stencilled. There are also depictions of animals, such as guanacos (Lama guanicoe), rheas, still commonly found in the region, geometric shapes, zigzag patterns, representations of the sun and hunting scenes like naturalistic portrayals of a variety of hunting techniques, including the use of bolas.

Lower Paleolithic reconstructions

Reconstructions of Lower Paleolithic daily life

From some 2.6 million to 300 000 years before present. The dating of the period beginning is rather floating. A new discovery may change it a great deal. It was too much time ago, fossils, artifacts of the period are more like scarce and their interpretations often seem to be confusing. The World is populated by the ancestors of humans, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos. In a way, the split among these may be considered to be the mark of the true beginning of the Lower Paleolithic as a part of human history. It is then that the participants first stepped forward. Presumable early tools are not exemplary enough. Even if being eponymous. It is not exactly clear if they were real tools. And using objects is not an exclusive characteristic of humanity anyway. The use of objects was a purely instinctive practice for many and many hundreds of years. It did not have any principle difference from other animal activities and did not make Homos of Lower and most probably of Middle Paleolithic human in the proper sense of the word. Australopithecus and Homo habilis are typical for the earlier part. Later various subspecies of Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, coexisting much of the period. Occasional use of fire. Later possibly even control of fire.

Словопрение высокороднейшего юноши Пипина с Альбином Схоластиком

Алкуин. Около 790 (?) года.

1. Пипин. Что такое буква? - Алкуин. Страж истории. 2. Пипин. Что такое слово? - Алкуин. Изменник души. 3. Пипин. Кто рождает слово? - Алкуин. Язык. 4. Пипин. Что такое язык? - Алкуин. Бич воздуха. 5. Пипин. Что такое воздух? - Алкуин. Хранитель жизни. 6. Пипин. Что такое жизнь? - Алкуин. Счастливым радость, несчастным горе, ожидание смерти. 7. Пипин. Что такое смерть? - Алкуин. Неизбежный исход, неизвестный путь, живущих рыдание, завещаний исполнение, хищник человеков. 8. Пипин. Что такое человек? -Алкуин. Раб смерти, мимоидущий путник, гость в своем доме. 9. Пипин. На что похож человек? - Алкуин. На плод. 10. Пипин. Как помещен человек? - Алкуин. Как лампада на ветру. 11. Пипин. Как он окружен? - Алкуин. Шестью стенами. 12. Пипин. Какими? - Алкуин. Сверху, снизу, спереди, сзади, справа и слева. 13. Пипин. Сколько у него спутников? - Алкуин. Четыре. 14. Пипин. Какие? - Алкуин. Жар, холод, сухость, влажность. 15. Пипин. Сколько с ним происходит перемен? - Алкуин. Шесть. 16. Пипин. Какие именно? - Алкуин. Голод и насыщение, покой и труд, бодрствование и сон. 17. Пипин. Что такое сон? - Алкуин. Образ смерти. 18. Пипин. Что составляет свободу человека? - Алкуин. Невинность. 19. Пипин. Что такое голова? - Алкуин.

Записки «вредителя». Побег из ГУЛАГа

Владимир и Татьяна Чернавины : Записки «вредителя». Побег из ГУЛАГа

Осенью 1922 года советские руководители решили в качестве концлагеря использовать Соловецкий монастырь, и в Кеми появилась пересылка, в которую зимой набивали заключенных, чтобы в навигацию перевезти на Соловки.Летом 1932 года из Кеми совершили побег арестованный за «вредительство» и прошедший Соловки профессор-ихтиолог Владимир Вячеславович Чернавин, его жена Татьяна Васильевна (дочь знаменитого томского профессора Василия Сапожникова, ученика Тимирязева и прославленного натуралиста) и их 13-летний сын Андрей. Они сначала плыли на лодке, потом долго плутали по болотам и каменистым кряжам, буквально поедаемые комарами и гнусом. Рискуя жизнью, без оружия, без теплой одежды, в ужасной обуви, почти без пищи они добрались до Финляндии. В 1934 году в Париже были напечатаны книги Татьяны Чернавиной «Жена "вредителя"» и ее мужа «Записки "вредителя"». Чернавины с горечью писали о том, что оказались ненужными стране, служение которой считали своим долгом. Невостребованными оказались их знания, труд, любовь к науке и отечественной культуре. Книги издавались на всех основных европейских языках, а также финском, польском и арабском. Главный официоз СССР — газета «Правда» — в 1934 году напечатала негодующую статью о книге, вышедшей к тому времени и в Америке. Однако к 90-м годам об этом побеге знали разве что сотрудники КГБ. Даже родственники Чернавиных мало что знали о перипетиях этого побега. Книгам Чернавиных в Российской Федерации не очень повезло: ни внимания СМИ, ни официального признания, и тиражи по тысяче экземпляров. Сегодня их можно прочесть только в сети. «Записки "вредителя"» — воспоминания В. Чернавина: работа в Севгосрыбтресте в Мурманске, арест в 1930 г., пребывание в следственной тюрьме в Ленинграде (на Шпалерной), в лагере на Соловецких островах, подготовка к побегу.«Побег из ГУЛАГа» — автобиографическая повесть Т. Чернавиной о жизни в Петрограде — Ленинграде в 20-е — 30-е годы, о начале массовых репрессий в стране, об аресте и женской тюрьме, в которой автор провела несколько месяцев в 1931 г. Описание подготовки к побегу через границу в Финляндию из Кеми, куда автор вместе с сыном приехала к мужу на свидание, и самого побега в 1932 г.

Письмо Н. В. Гоголю 15 июля 1847 г.

Белинский В.Г. / Н. В. Гоголь в русской критике: Сб. ст. - М.: Гос. издат. худож. лит. - 1953. - С. 243-252.

Вы только отчасти правы, увидав в моей статье рассерженного человека [1]: этот эпитет слишком слаб и нежен для выражения того состояния, в какое привело меня чтение Вашей книги. Но Вы вовсе не правы, приписавши это Вашим, действительно не совсем лестным отзывам о почитателях Вашего таланта. Нет, тут была причина более важная. Оскорблённое чувство самолюбия ещё можно перенести, и у меня достало бы ума промолчать об этом предмете, если б всё дело заключалось только в нём; но нельзя перенести оскорблённого чувства истины, человеческого достоинства; нельзя умолчать, когда под покровом религии и защитою кнута проповедуют ложь и безнравственность как истину и добродетель. Да, я любил Вас со всею страстью, с какою человек, кровно связанный со своею страною, может любить её надежду, честь, славу, одного из великих вождей её на пути сознания, развития, прогресса. И Вы имели основательную причину хоть на минуту выйти из спокойного состояния духа, потерявши право на такую любовь. Говорю это не потому, чтобы я считал любовь мою наградою великого таланта, а потому, что, в этом отношении, представляю не одно, а множество лиц, из которых ни Вы, ни я не видали самого большего числа и которые, в свою очередь, тоже никогда не видали Вас. Я не в состоянии дать Вам ни малейшего понятия о том негодовании, которое возбудила Ваша книга во всех благородных сердцах, ни о том вопле дикой радости, который издали, при появлении её, все враги Ваши — и литературные (Чичиковы, Ноздрёвы, Городничие и т. п.), и нелитературные, которых имена Вам известны.

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre

Jacques Callot. Les Grandes Misères de la guerre, 1633

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre sont une série de dix-huit eaux-fortes, éditées en 1633, et qui constituent l'une des œuvres maitresses de Jacques Callot. Le titre exact en est (d'après la planche de titre) : Les Misères et les Malheurs de la guerre, mais on appelle fréquemment cette série Les Grandes Misères... pour la différencier de la série Les Petites Misères de la guerre. Cette suite se compose de dix-huit pièces qui représentent, plus complètement que dans les Petites Misères, les malheurs occasionnés par la guerre. Les plaques sont conservées au Musée lorrain de Nancy.

Кавказ

Величко, В.Л.: С.-Петербург, Типография Артели Печатнаго Дела, Невский пр., 61, 1904

В.Л. Величко 1. Введение Какое доселе волшебное слово - Кавказ! Как веет от него неизгладимыми для всего русского народа воспоминаниями; как ярка мечта, вспыхивающая в душе при этом имени, мечта непобедимая ни пошлостью вседневной, ни суровым расчетом! Есть ли в России человек, чья семья несколько десятилетий тому назад не принесла бы этому загадочному краю жертв кровью и слезами, не возносила бы к небу жарких молитв, тревожно прислушиваясь к грозным раскатам богатырской борьбы, кипевшей вдали?! Снеговенчанные гиганты и жгучие лучи полуденного солнца, и предания старины, проникнутые глубочайшим трагизмом, и лихорадочное геройство сынов Кавказа - все это воспето и народом, и вещими выразителями его миросозерцания, вдохновленными светочами русской идеи, - нашими великими поэтами. Кавказ для нас не может быть чужим: слишком много на него потрачено всяческих сил, слишком много органически он связан с великим мировым призванием, с русским делом. В виду множества попыток (большею частью небескорыстных) сбить русское общество с толку в междуплеменных вопросах, необходимо установить раз и навсегда жизненную, правильную точку зрения на русское дело вообще. У людей, одинаково искренних, могут быть различные точки зрения. Одни считают служение русскому делу борьбой за народно-государственное существование и процветание, борьбой, не стесненной никакими заветами истории, никакими нормами нравственности или человечности; они считают, что все чужое, хотя бы и достойное, должно быть стерто с лица земли, коль скоро оно не сливается точно, быстро и бесследно с нашей народно-государственной стихией. Этот жестокий взгляд я назвал бы германским, а не русским.

Обращение к абхазскому народу

Гамсахурдия З. 12 марта 1991

Дорогие соотечественники! Братство абхазов и грузин восходит к незапамятным временам. Наше общее колхское происхождение, генетическое родство между нашими народами и языками, общность истории, общность культуры обязывает нас сегодня серьезно призадуматься над дальнейшими судьбами наших народов. Мы всегда жили на одной земле, деля друг с другом и горе, и радость. У нас в течение столетий было общее царство, мы молились в одном храме и сражались с общими врагами на одном поле битвы. Представители древнейших абхазских фамилий и сегодня не отличают друг от друга абхазов и грузин. Абхазские князя Шервашидзе называли себя не только абхазскими, но и грузинскими князями, грузинский язык наравне с абхазским являлся родным языком для них, как и для абхазских писателей того времени. Нас связывали между собой культура "Вепхисткаосани" и древнейшие грузинские храмы, украшенные грузинскими надписями, те, что и сегодня стоят в Абхазии, покоряя зрителя своей красотой. Нас соединил мост царицы Тамар на реке Беслети близ Сухуми, и нине хранящий старинную грузинскую надпись, Бедиа и Мокви, Лихны, Амбра, Бичвинта и многие другие памятники – свидетели нашего братства, нашого единения. Абхаз в сознании грузина всегда бил символом возвышенного, рыцарского благородства. Об этом свидетельствуют поэма Акакия Церетели "Наставник" и многие другие шедевры грузинской литературы. Мы гордимся тем, что именно грузинский писатель Константинэ Гамсахурдиа прославил на весь мир абхазскую культуру и быт, доблесть и силу духа абхазского народа в своем романе "Похищение луны".