Of the Island of Cuba
Captain Morgan attempts to preserve the Isle of St. Catherine as a refuge to the nest of pirates, but fails of his design
He arrives at and takes the village of El Puerto del Principe.
CAPTAIN MORGAN seeing his predecessor and admiral Mansvelt were dead, used all the means that were possible, to keep in possession the isle of St. Catherine, seated near Cuba. His chief intent was to make it a refuge and sanctuary to the pirates of those parts, putting it in a condition of being a convenient receptacle of their preys and robberies. To this effect he left no stone unmoved, writing to several merchants in Virginia and New England, persuading them to send him provisions and necessaries, towards putting the said island in such a posture of defence, as to fear no danger of invasion from any side. But all this proved ineffectual, by the Spaniards retaking the said island: yet Captain Morgan retained his courage, which put him on new designs. First, he equipped a ship, in order to gather a fleet as great, and as strong as he could. By degrees he effected it, and gave orders to every member of his fleet to meet at a certain port of Cuba, there determining to call a council, and deliberate what was best to be done, and what place first to fall upon. Leaving these preparations in this condition, I shall give my reader some small account of the said isle of Cuba, in whose port this expedition was hatched, seeing I omitted to do it in its proper place.
Cuba lies from east to west, in north latitude, from 20 to 23 deg. in length one hundred and fifty German leagues, and about forty in breadth. Its fertility is equal to that of Hispaniola; besides which, it affords many things proper for trading and commerce; such as hides of several beasts, particularly those that in Europe are called hides of Havanna. On all sides it is surrounded with many small islands, called the Cayos: these little islands the pirates use as ports of refuge. Here they have their meetings, and hold their councils, how best to assault the Spaniards. It is watered on all sides with plentiful and pleasant rivers, whose entries form both secure and spacious ports; beside many other harbours for ships, which along the calm shores and coasts adorn this rich and beautiful island; all which contribute much to its happiness, by facilitating trade, whereto they invited both natives and aliens. The chief of these ports are San Jago, Byame, Santa Maria, Espiritu Santo, Trinidad, Zagoa, Cabo de Corientes, and others, on the south side of the island: on the north side are, La Havanna, Puerto Mariano, Santa Cruz, Mata Ricos, and Barracoa.
This island hath two chief cities, to which all the towns and villages thereof give obedience. The first is Santa Jago, or St. James, seated on the south side, and having under its jurisdiction one half of the island. The chief magistrates hereof are a bishop and a governor, who command the villages and towns of the said half. The chief of these are, on the south side, Espiritu Santo, Puerto del Principe, and Bayame. On the north it has Barracoa, and De los Cayos. The greatest part of the commerce driven here comes from the Canaries, whither they transport much tobacco, sugar, and hides, which sort of merchandise are drawn to the head city from the subordinate towns and villages. Formerly the city of Santa Jago was miserably sacked by the pirates of Jamaica and Tortuga, though it is defended by a considerable castle.
The city and port De la Havanna lies between the north and west side of the island: this is one of the strongest places of the West Indies; its jurisdiction extends over the other half of the island; the chief places under it being Santa Cruz on the north side, and La Trinidad on the south. Hence is transported huge quantities of tobacco, which is sent to New Spain and Costa Rica, even as far as the South Sea, besides many ships laden with this commodity, that are consigned to Spain and other parts of Europe, not only in the leaf, but in rolls. This city is defended by three castles, very great and strong, two of which lie towards the port, and the other is seated on a hill that commands the town. It is esteemed to contain about ten thousand families. The merchants of this place trade in New Spain, Campechy, Honduras, and Florida. All ships that come from the parts before mentioned, as also from Caraccas, Carthagena and Costa Rica, are necessitated to take their provisions in at Havanna to make their voyage for Spain; this being the necessary and straight course they must steer for the south of Europe, and other parts. The plate-fleet of Spain, which the Spaniards call Flota, being homeward bound, touches here yearly to complete their cargo with hides, tobacco, and Campechy wood.
Captain Morgan had been but two months in these ports of the south of Cuba, when he had got together a fleet of twelve sail, between ships and great boats, with seven hundred fighting men, part English and part French. They called a council, and some advised to assault the city of Havanna in the night, which they said might easily be done, if they could but take any of the ecclesiastics; yea, that the city might be sacked before the castles could put themselves in a posture of defence. Others propounded, according to their several opinions, other attempts; but the former proposal was rejected, because many of the pirates, who had been prisoners at other times in the said city, affirmed nothing of consequence could be done with less than one thousand five hundred men. Moreover, that with all these people, they ought first go to the island De los Pinos, and land them in small boats about Matamona, fourteen leagues from the said city, whereby to accomplish their designs.
Finally, they saw no possibility of gathering so great a fleet, and hereupon, with what they had, they concluded to attempt some other place. Among the rest, one propounded they should assault the town of El Puerto del Principe. This proposition he persuaded to, by saying he knew that place very well, and that being at a distance from sea, it never was sacked by any pirates, whereby the inhabitants were rich, exercising their trade by ready money, with those of Havanna who kept here an established commerce, chiefly in hides. This proposal was presently admitted by Captain Morgan, and the chief of his companions. Hereupon they ordered every captain to weigh anchor and set sail, steering towards that coast nearest to El Puerto del Principe. Here is a bay named by the Spaniards El Puerto de Santa Maria: being arrived at this bay, a Spaniard, who was prisoner aboard the fleet, swam ashore by night to the town of El Puerto del Principe, giving an account to the inhabitants of the design of the pirates, which he overheard in their discourse, while they thought he did not understand English. The Spaniards upon this advice began to hide their riches, and carry away their movables; the governor immediately raised all the people of the town, freemen and slaves, and with part of them took a post by which of necessity the pirates must pass, and commanded many trees to be cut down and laid cross the ways to hinder their passage, placing several ambuscades strengthened with some pieces of cannon to play upon them on their march. He gathered in all about eight hundred men, of which detaching part into the said ambuscades, with the rest he begirt the town, drawing them up in a spacious field, whence they could see the coming of the pirates at length.
Captain Morgan, with his men, now on the march, found the avenues to the town unpassable; hereupon they took their way through the wood, traversing it with great difficulty, whereby they escaped divers ambuscades; at last they came to the plain, from its figure called by the Spaniards La Savanna, or the Sheet. The governor seeing them come, detached a troop of horse to charge them in the front, thinking to disperse them, and to pursue them with his main body: but this design succeeded not, for the pirates marched in very good order, at the sound of their drums, and with flying colours; coming near the horse they drew into a semicircle, and so advanced towards the Spaniards, who charged them valiantly for a while; but the pirates being very dextrous at their arms, and their governor, with many of their companions, being killed, they retreated towards the wood, to save themselves with more advantage; but before they could reach it, most of them were unfortunately killed by the pirates. Thus they left the victory to these new-come enemies, who had no considerable loss of men in the battle, and but very few wounded. The skirmish lasted four hours: they entered the town not without great resistance of such as were within, who defended themselves as long as possible, and many seeing the enemy in the town, shut themselves up in their own houses, and thence made several shots upon the pirates; who thereupon threatened them, saying, "If you surrender not voluntarily, you shall soon see the town in a flame, and your wives and children torn to pieces before your faces." Upon these menaces the Spaniards submitted to the discretion of the pirates, believing they could not continue there long.
As soon as the pirates had possessed themselves of the town, they enclosed all the Spaniards, men, women, children, and slaves, in several churches, and pillaged all the goods they could find; then they searched the country round about, bringing in daily many goods and prisoners, with much provision. With this they fell to making great cheer, after their old custom, without remembering the poor prisoners, whom they let starve in the churches, though they tormented them daily and inhumanly to make them confess where they had hid their goods, money, etc., though little or nothing was left them, not sparing the women and little children, giving them nothing to eat, whereby the greatest part perished.
Pillage and provisions growing scarce, they thought convenient to depart and seek new fortunes in other places; they told the prisoners, "they should find money to ransom themselves, else they should be all transported to Jamaica; and beside, if they did not pay a second ransom for the town, they would turn every house into ashes." The Spaniards hereupon nominated among themselves four fellow-prisoners to go and seek for the above-mentioned contributions; but the pirates, to the intent that they should return speedily with those ransoms, tormented several cruelly in their presence, before they departed. After a few days, the Spaniards returned, telling Captain Morgan, "We have ran up and down, and searched all the neighbouring woods and places we most suspected, and yet have not been able to find any of our own party, nor consequently any fruit of our embassy; but if you are pleased to have a little longer patience with us, we shall certainly cause all that you demand to be paid within fifteen days;" which Captain Morgan granted. But not long after, there came into the town seven or eight pirates who had been ranging in the woods and fields, and got considerable booty. These brought amongst other prisoners, a negro, whom they had taken with letters. Captain Morgan having perused them, found that they were from the governor of Santa Jago, being written to some of the prisoners, wherein he told them, "they should not make too much haste to pay any ransom for their town or persons, or any other pretext; but on the contrary, they should put off the pirates as well as they could with excuses and delays, expecting to be relieved by him in a short time, when he would certainly come to their aid." Upon this intelligence Captain Morgan immediately ordered all their plunder to be carried aboard; and withal, he told the Spaniards, that the very next day they should pay their ransoms, for he would not wait a moment longer, but reduce the whole town to ashes, if they failed of the sum he demanded.
With this intimation, Captain Morgan made no mention to the Spaniards of the letters he had intercepted. They answered, "that it was impossible for them to give such a sum of money in so short a space of time, seeing their fellow-townsmen were not to be found in all the country thereabouts." Captain Morgan knew full well their intentions, but thought it not convenient to stay there any longer, demanding of them only five hundred oxen or cows, with sufficient salt to powder them, with this condition, that they should carry them on board his ships. Thus he departed with all his men, taking with him only six of the principal prisoners as pledges. Next day the Spaniards brought the cattle and salt to the ships, and required the prisoners; but Captain Morgan refused to deliver them, till they had helped his men to kill and salt the beeves: this was performed in great haste, he not caring to stay there any longer, lest he should be surprised by the forces that were gathering against him; and having received all on board his vessels, he set at liberty the hostages. Meanwhile there happened some dissensions between the English and the French: the occasion was as follows: A Frenchman being employed in killing and salting the beeves, an English pirate took away the marrow-bones he had taken out of the ox, which these people esteem much; hereupon they challenged one another: being come to the place of duel, the Englishman stabbed the Frenchman in the back, whereby he fell down dead. The other Frenchmen, desirous of revenge, made an insurrection against the English; but Captain Morgan soon appeased them, by putting the criminal in chains to be carried to Jamaica, promising he would see justice done upon him; for though he might challenge his adversary, yet it was not lawful to kill him treacherously, as he did.
All things being ready, and on board, and the prisoners set at liberty, they sailed thence to a certain island, where Captain Morgan intended to make a dividend of what they had purchased in that voyage; where being arrived, they found nigh the value of fifty thousand pieces of eight in money and goods; the sum being known, it caused a general grief to see such a small purchase, not sufficient to pay their debts at Jamaica. Hereupon Captain Morgan proposed they should think on some other enterprise and pillage before they returned. But the French not being able to agree with the English, left Captain Morgan with those of his own nation, notwithstanding all the persuasions he used to reduce them to continue in his company. Thus they parted with all external signs of friendship, Captain Morgan reiterating his promises to them that he would see justice done on that criminal. This he performed; for being arrived at Jamaica, he caused him to be hanged, which was all the satisfaction the French pirates could expect.
Wm. Robert Johnston: Last updated 18 August 2003
4th edition: escalation in 1988 By Wm. Robert Johnston. Last updated 18 August 2003. Introduction The following is an approximate description of the effects of a global nuclear war. For the purposes of illustration it is assumed that a war resulted in mid-1988 from military conflict between the Warsaw Pact and NATO. This is in some ways a worst-case scenario (total numbers of strategic warheads deployed by the superpowers peaked about this time; the scenario implies a greater level of military readiness; and impact on global climate and crop yields are greatest for a war in August). Some details, such as the time of attack, the events leading to war, and the winds affecting fallout patterns, are only meant to be illustrative. This applies also to the global geopolitical aftermath, which represents the author's efforts at intelligent speculation. There is much public misconception concerning the physical effects of nuclear war--some of it motivated by politics. Certainly the predictions described here are uncertain: for example, casualty figures in the U.S. are accurate perhaps to within 30% for the first few days, but the number of survivors in the U.S. after one year could differ from these figures by as much as a factor of four. Nonetheless, there is no reasonable basis for expecting results radically different from this description--for example, there is no scientific basis for expecting the extinction of the human species. Note that the most severe predictions concerning nuclear winter have now been evaluated and discounted by most of the scientific community. Sources supplying the basis for this description include the U.S.
Конституция (Основной Закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Утверждена II Съездом Советов Союза ССР от 31 января 1924 года
Центральный Исполнительный Комитет Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, торжественно провозглашая незыблемость основ Советской власти, во исполнение постановления 1 съезда Советов Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, а также на основании Договора об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, принятого на 1 съезде Советов Союза Советских Социалистических Республик в городе Москве 30 декабря 1922 года, и, принимая во внимание поправки и изменения, предложенные центральными исполнительными комитетами союзных республик, постановляет: Декларация об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик и Договор об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик составляют Основной Закон (Конституцию) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Раздел первый Декларация об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Со времени образования советских республик государства, мира раскололись на два лагеря: лагерь капитализма и лагерь социализма. Там, в лагере капитализма — национальная вражда и неравенство колониальное рабство и шовинизм, национальное угнетение и погромы, империалистические зверства и войны. Здесь, в лагере социализма — взаимное доверие и мир, национальная свобода и равенство, мирное сожительство и братское сотрудничество народов. Попытки капиталистического мира на протяжении десятков лет разрешить вопрос о национальности путем совмещения свободного развития народов с системой эксплоатации человека человеком оказались бесплодными. Наоборот, клубок национальных противоречий все более запутывается, угрожая самому существованию капитализма.
Николай Реден : Сквозь ад русской революции. Воспоминания гардемарина. 1914-1919
Интереснейшие воспоминания человека очень неординарной судьбы. Одно простое перечисление основных событий юности и молодости Николая Редена впечатляет: начало Великой Войны и «побег» из гимназии на фронт, Февральская революция, Петроград 17-го года, большевистский переворот, участие в тайной офицерской организации, арест и бегство, нелегальный переход в Финляндию, приезд в Эстонию и участие в боях в составе Северо-Западной Армии. Николай Реден остается с армией до трагического финала похода на Петроград, потом интернирование армии в Эстонии, плавание в Данию на «Китобое», встречи с вдовствующей императрицей и наконец эмиграция в Соединенные Штаты. Там для Николая начинается новый, американский этап его жизни. Николаю Редену пришлось пройти через невероятные испытания, увидеть жизнь медвежьих углов России, узнать тюрьму и оценить всю прелесть воли. Когда разразилась революция, юный гардемарин оказался в своей стране во враждебном окружении. Он перешел границу с Финляндией, воевал в составе Белой армии в Эстонии. После разгрома белых с группой молодых флотских офицеров на похищенном корабле он совершил переход в Копенгаген. Не раз пришлось юноше побывать на грани жизни и смерти. Судьба хранила Редена, ему удалось, пройдя множество испытаний, найти новую родину и не забыть о своей принадлежности к народу страны с трагической, но великой историей.
HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck (1906). Coastal defence ship or pantserschip of the Royal Netherlands Navy / Koninklijke Marine
Jacob van Heemskerck HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck was a coastal defence ship (or simply pantserschip in Dutch) in the Royal Netherlands Navy / Koninklijke Marine. Laid down at Rijkswerf, Amsterdam in 1905. Launched 22 September 1906 and commissioned 22 April 1908. It had a long service history, saw action in World War II as a floating battery both for Netherlands and Germany. Then rebuilt into an accommodation ship after the war and decommissioned only on 13 September 1974. There was also the second vessel of the type, Marten Harpertzoon Tromp. The two were not exactly the same though. Jacob van Heemskerck was slightly smaller and had extra two 150-mm gun installed. Both ships were of a quite unique type, specific to Royal Netherlands Navy. By 1900 Koninklijke Marine practically consisted of two parts, more or less distinct: one for protecting homeland and another mostly concerned with Dutch East Indies defence. Or, in other words, a branch for European affairs and a branch for handling overseas issues. Not only in Dutch East Indies, but also in other parts of the world, where Netherlands had its dominions.
Братья Лимбург. Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского. Цикл Времена года. XV век.
«Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского» или, в другой версии перевода, «Роскошный часослов герцога Беррийского» (фр. Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry) - иллюстрированный манускрипт XV века. Самая известная часть изображений часослова, цикл «Времена года» состоит из 12 миниатюр с изображением соответствующих сезону деталей жизни на фоне замков. Создание рукописи началось в первой четверти XV века по заказу Жана, герцога Беррийского. Не была закончена при жизни заказчика и своих главных создателей, братьев Лимбург.
Reconstructions of Upper Paleolithic daily life
From 50 000 to 10 000 years before present. Last Ice Age. Realm of Cro-Magnons and other early Homo sapiens sapiens: anatomically and more or less behaviorally modern humans. Consciousness, speech, art positively exist. It is very much debatable if Homo species other than Homo sapiens sapiens ever possessed them. Major world population is early Homo sapiens sapiens, but also some other species of Homo, more characteristic for previous epochs, Neanderthals and possibly even some subspecies of Homo erectus, coexisted for much of the period. Humans begin to populate Australia and Americas. First decisive evidence of spears used as projectile weapons. Invention of a tool to throw them faster and farther: spear-thrower. Bow seems to be invented only near the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. Control of fire, fire making including, is widespread. Pleistocene megafauna: iconic mammoths and woolly rhinoceros. Many of mammals common enough today exist in much larger forms: giant beavers, giant polar bears, giant kangaroos, giant deers, giant condors. Some in "cave" forms, like cave bears, cave lions, cave hyenas.
Ковалев, Э. А.: М., ЗАО Центрполиграф, 2006
Книга продолжает изданную под названием «Рыцари глубин» хронику рождения и становления подводного плавания в России. Хронологические рамки повествования охватывают период с конца 1917 по июнь 1941 г. Материал основывается на сведениях, отобранных из фондов РГА ВМФ, ЦВМА, ЦВМБ, а также из газетных и журнальных статей. Первые три части книги характеризуют времена Гражданской войны, восстановления подводного плавания страны и его дальнейшего развития. Рассказывается о попытках утверждения новой военно-морской доктрины, строительстве подводных кораблей новых типов, подготовке подводников в условиях надвигающейся войны. Четвертая часть книги содержит краткие биографические сведения о первых советских командирах подводных лодок. Даже поверхностное знакомство с представленными сведениями позволит читателю понять, почему в 1941 г. страна оказалась не готовой в том числе и к войне на море. В Приложении читатель найдет необходимые справки.
Jacques Callot. Les Grandes Misères de la guerre, 1633
Les Grandes Misères de la guerre sont une série de dix-huit eaux-fortes, éditées en 1633, et qui constituent l'une des œuvres maitresses de Jacques Callot. Le titre exact en est (d'après la planche de titre) : Les Misères et les Malheurs de la guerre, mais on appelle fréquemment cette série Les Grandes Misères... pour la différencier de la série Les Petites Misères de la guerre. Cette suite se compose de dix-huit pièces qui représentent, plus complètement que dans les Petites Misères, les malheurs occasionnés par la guerre. Les plaques sont conservées au Musée lorrain de Nancy.
Ракитин А.И. Апрель 2010 - ноябрь 2011 гг.
23 января 1959г. из Свердловска выехала группа туристов в составе 10 человек, которая поставила своей задачей пройти по лесам и горам Северного Урала лыжным походом 3-й (наивысшей) категории сложности. За 16 дней участники похода должны были преодолеть на лыжах не менее 350 км. и совершить восхождения на североуральские горы Отортэн и Ойко-Чакур. Формально считалось, что поход организован туристской секцией спортивного клуба Уральского Политехнического Института (УПИ) и посвящён предстоящему открытию 21 съезда КПСС, но из 10 участников четверо студентами не являлись.
Гамсахурдия З. 12 марта 1991
Дорогие соотечественники! Братство абхазов и грузин восходит к незапамятным временам. Наше общее колхское происхождение, генетическое родство между нашими народами и языками, общность истории, общность культуры обязывает нас сегодня серьезно призадуматься над дальнейшими судьбами наших народов. Мы всегда жили на одной земле, деля друг с другом и горе, и радость. У нас в течение столетий было общее царство, мы молились в одном храме и сражались с общими врагами на одном поле битвы. Представители древнейших абхазских фамилий и сегодня не отличают друг от друга абхазов и грузин. Абхазские князя Шервашидзе называли себя не только абхазскими, но и грузинскими князями, грузинский язык наравне с абхазским являлся родным языком для них, как и для абхазских писателей того времени. Нас связывали между собой культура "Вепхисткаосани" и древнейшие грузинские храмы, украшенные грузинскими надписями, те, что и сегодня стоят в Абхазии, покоряя зрителя своей красотой. Нас соединил мост царицы Тамар на реке Беслети близ Сухуми, и нине хранящий старинную грузинскую надпись, Бедиа и Мокви, Лихны, Амбра, Бичвинта и многие другие памятники – свидетели нашего братства, нашого единения. Абхаз в сознании грузина всегда бил символом возвышенного, рыцарского благородства. Об этом свидетельствуют поэма Акакия Церетели "Наставник" и многие другие шедевры грузинской литературы. Мы гордимся тем, что именно грузинский писатель Константинэ Гамсахурдиа прославил на весь мир абхазскую культуру и быт, доблесть и силу духа абхазского народа в своем романе "Похищение луны".
Договор об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. 30 декабря 1922 года
Российская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Республика (РСФСР), Украинская Социалистическая Советская Республика (УССР), Белорусская Социалистическая Советская Республика (БССР) и Закавказская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Республика (ЗСФСР - Грузия, Азербейджан и Армения) заключают настоящий Союзный договор об объединении в одно союзное государство - «Союз Советских Социалистических Республик» - на следующих основаниях. 1.
Charles Darwin, 1839
Preface I have stated in the preface to the first Edition of this work, and in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, that it was in consequence of a wish expressed by Captain Fitz Roy, of having some scientific person on board, accompanied by an offer from him of giving up part of his own accommodations, that I volunteered my services, which received, through the kindness of the hydrographer, Captain Beaufort, the sanction of the Lords of the Admiralty. As I feel that the opportunities which I enjoyed of studying the Natural History of the different countries we visited, have been wholly due to Captain Fitz Roy, I hope I may here be permitted to repeat my expression of gratitude to him; and to add that, during the five years we were together, I received from him the most cordial friendship and steady assistance. Both to Captain Fitz Roy and to all the Officers of the Beagle  I shall ever feel most thankful for the undeviating kindness with which I was treated during our long voyage. This volume contains, in the form of a Journal, a history of our voyage, and a sketch of those observations in Natural History and Geology, which I think will possess some interest for the general reader. I have in this edition largely condensed and corrected some parts, and have added a little to others, in order to render the volume more fitted for popular reading; but I trust that naturalists will remember, that they must refer for details to the larger publications which comprise the scientific results of the Expedition.