Chapter II


A description of Tortuga
The fruits and plants there
How the French first settled there, at two several times, and forced out the Spaniards
The author twice sold in the said island.


THE island of Tortuga is situate on the north side of Hispaniola, in 20 deg. 30 min. latitude; its just extent is threescore leagues about. The Spaniards, who gave name to this island, called it so from the shape of the land, in some manner resembling a great sea-tortoise, called by them Tortuga-de-mar. The country is very mountainous, and full of rocks, and yet thick of lofty trees, that grow upon the hardest of those rocks, without partaking of a softer soil. Hence it comes that their roots, for the greatest part, are seen naked, entangled among the rocks like the branching of ivy against our walls. That part of this island which stretches to the north is totally uninhabited: the reason is, first, because it is incommodious, and unhealthy: and, secondly, for the ruggedness of the coast, that gives no access to the shore, unless among rocks almost inaccessible: for this cause it is peopled only on the south part, which hath only one port indifferently good: yet this harbour has two entries, or channels, which afford passage to ships of seventy guns; the port itself being without danger, and capable of receiving a great number of vessels. The inhabited parts, of which the first is called the Low-Lands, or Low-Country: this is the chief among the rest, because it contains the port aforesaid. The town is called Cayona, and here live the chiefest and richest planters of the island. The second part is called the Middle Plantation: its soil is yet almost new, being only known to be good for tobacco. The third is named Ringot, and is situate towards the west part of the island. The fourth and last is called the Mountain, in which place were made the first plantations upon this island.

As to the wood that grows here, we have already said that the trees are exceeding tall, and pleasing to the sight; whence no man will doubt, but they may be applied to several uses. Such is the yellow saunder, which by the inhabitants is called bois de chandel, or, in English, candle-wood, because it burns like a candle, and serves them with light while they fish by night. Here grows, also, lingnum sanctum, or guaiacum: its virtues are very well known, more especially to those who observe not the Seventh Commandment, and are given to impure copulations!—physicians drawing hence, in several compositions, the greatest antidote for venereal diseases; as also for cold and viscous humours. The trees, likewise, which afford gummi elemi, grow here in great abundance; as doth radix Chinæ, or China root: yet this is not so good as that of other parts of the western world. It is very white and soft, and serves for pleasant food to the wild boars, when they can find nothing else. This island, also, is not deficient in aloes, nor an infinite number of the other medicinal herbs, which may please the curiosity of such as are given to their contemplation: moreover, for building of ships, or any other sort of architecture, here are found several sorts of timber. The fruits, likewise, which grow here abundantly, are nothing inferior, in quantity or quality, to what other islands produce. I shall name only some of the most ordinary and common: such are magnoit, potatoes, Abajou apples, yannas, bacones, paquays, carosoles, mamayns, annananes, and divers other sorts, which I omit to specify. Here grow likewise, in great numbers, those trees called palmitoes, or palmites, whence is drawn a certain juice which serves the inhabitants instead of wine, and whose leaves cover their houses instead of tiles.

In this island aboundeth, also, the wild boar. The governor hath prohibited the hunting of them with dogs, fearing lest, the island being but small, the whole race of them, in a short time, should be destroyed. The reason why he thought convenient to preserve these wild beasts was, that, in case of any invasion, the inhabitants might sustain themselves with their food, especially were they once constrained to retire to the woods and mountains. Yet this sort of game is almost impeded by itself, by reason of the many rocks and precipices, which, for the greatest part, are covered with little shrubs, very green and thick; whence the huntsmen have oftentimes fallen, and left us the sad remembrance of many a memorable disaster.

At a certain time of the year there resort to Tortuga large flocks of wild pigeons, and then the inhabitants feed on them very plentifully, having more than they can consume, and leaving totally to their repose all other sorts of fowl, both wild and tame; that so, in the absence of the pigeons, these may supply their place. But as nothing in the universe, though never so pleasant, can be found, but what hath something of bitterness with it; the very symbol of this truth we see in the aforesaid pigeons: for these, the season being past, can scarce be touched with the tongue, they become so extremely lean, and bitter even to admiration. The reason of this bitterness is attributed to a certain seed which they eat about that time, even as bitter as gall. About the sea-shores, everywhere, are found great multitudes of crabs, both of land and sea, and both sorts very big. These are good to feed servants and slaves, whose palates they please, but are very hurtful to the sight: besides, being eaten too often, they cause great giddiness in the head, with much weakness of the brain; so that, very frequently, they are deprived of sight for a quarter of an hour.

The French having settled in the isle of St. Christopher, planted there a sort of trees, of which, at present, there possibly may be greater quantities; with the timber whereof they made long-boats, and hoys, which they sent thence westward, well manned and victualled, to discover other islands. These setting sail from St. Christopher, came within sight of Hispaniola, where they arrived with abundance of joy. Having landed, they marched into the country, where they found large quantities of cattle; such as cows, bulls, horses, and wild boars: but finding no great profit in these animals, unless they could enclose them, and knowing, likewise, the island to be pretty well peopled by the Spaniards, they thought it convenient to enter upon and seize the island of Tortuga. This they performed without any difficulty, there being upon the island no more than ten or twelve Spaniards to guard it. These few men let the French come in peaceably, and possess the island for six months, without any trouble; meanwhile they passed and repassed, with their canoes, to Hispaniola, from whence they transported many people, and at last began to plant the whole island of Tortuga. The few Spaniards remaining there, perceiving the French to increase their number daily, began, at last, to repine at their prosperity, and grudge them the possession: hence they gave notice to others of their nation, their neighbours, who sent several boats, well armed and manned, to dispossess the French. This expedition succeeded according to their desires; for the new possessors, seeing the great number of Spaniards, fled with all they had to the woods, and hence, by night, they wafted over with canoes to the island of Hispaniola: this they the more easily performed, having no women or children with them, nor any great substance to carry away. Here they also retired into the woods, both to seek for food, and from thence, with secrecy, to give intelligence to others of their own faction; judging for certain, that within a little while they should be in a capacity to hinder the Spaniards from fortifying in Tortuga.

Meanwhile, the Spaniards of the great island ceased not to seek after their new guests, the French, with intent to root them out of the woods if possible, or cause them to perish with hunger; but this design soon failed, having found that the French were masters both of good guns, powder, and bullets. Here therefore the fugitives waited for a certain opportunity, wherein they knew the Spaniards were to come from Tortuga with arms, and a great number of men, to join with those of the greater island for their destruction. When this occasion offered, they in the meanwhile deserting the woods where they were, returned to Tortuga, and dispossessed the small number of Spaniards that remained at home. Having so done, they fortified themselves the best they could, thereby to prevent the return of the Spaniards in case they should attempt it. Moreover, they sent immediately to the governor of St. Christopher's, craving his aid and relief, and demanding of him a governor, the better to be united among themselves, and strengthened on all occasions. The governor of St. Christopher's received their petition with much satisfaction, and, without delay, sent Monsieur le Passeur to them in quality of a governor, together with a ship full of men, and all necessaries for their establishment and defence. No sooner had they received this recruit, but the governor commanded a fortress to be built upon the top of a high rock, from whence he could hinder the entrance of any ships or other vessels to the port. To this fort no other access could be had, than by almost climbing through a very narrow passage that was capable only of receiving two persons at once, and those not without difficulty. In the middle of this rock was a great cavity, which now serves for a storehouse: besides, here was great convenience for raising a battery. The fort being finished, the governor commanded two guns to be mounted, which could not be done without great toil and labour; as also a house to be built within the fort, and afterwards the narrow way, that led to the said fort, to be broken and demolished, leaving no other ascent thereto than by a ladder. Within the fort gushes out a plentiful fountain of pure fresh water, sufficient to refresh a garrison of a thousand men. Being possessed of these conveniences, and the security these things might promise, the French began to people the island, and each of them to seek their living; some by hunting, others by planting tobacco, and others by cruizing and robbing upon the coasts of the Spanish islands, which trade is continued by them to this day.

The Spaniards, notwithstanding, could not behold, but with jealous eyes, the daily increase of the French in Tortuga, fearing lest, in time, they might by them be dispossessed also of Hispaniola. Thus taking an opportunity (when many of the French were abroad at sea, and others employed in hunting), with eight hundred men, in several canoes, they landed again in Tortuga, almost without being perceived by the French; but finding that the governor had cut down many trees for the better discovery of any enemy in case of an assault, as also that nothing of consequence could be done without great guns, they consulted about the fittest place for raising a battery. This place was soon concluded to be the top of a mountain which was in sight, seeing that from thence alone they could level their guns at the fort, which now lay open to them since the cutting down of the trees by the new possessors. Hence they resolved to open a way for the carriage of some pieces of ordnance to the top. This mountain is somewhat high, and the upper part thereof plain, from whence the whole island may be viewed: the sides thereof are very rugged, by reason a great number of inaccessible rocks do surround it; so that the ascent was very difficult, and would always have been the same, had not the Spaniards undergone the immense labour and toil of making the way before mentioned, as I shall now relate.

The Spaniards had with them many slaves and Indians, labouring men, whom they call matades, or, in English, half-yellow men; these they ordered with iron tools to dig a way through the rocks. This they performed with the greatest speed imaginable; and through this way, by the help of many ropes and pulleys, they at last made shift to get up two pieces of ordnance, wherewith they made a battery next day, to play on the fort. Meanwhile, the French knowing these designs, prepared for a defence (while the Spaniards were busy about the battery) sending notice everywhere to their companions for help. Thus the hunters of the island all joined together, and with them all the pirates who were not already too far from home. These landed by night at Tortuga, lest they should be seen by the Spaniards; and, under the same obscurity of the night, they all together, by a back way, climbed the mountain where the Spaniards were posted, which they did the more easily being acquainted with these rocks. They came up at the very instant that the Spaniards, who were above, were preparing to shoot at the fort, not knowing in the least of their coming. Here they set upon them at their backs with such fury as forced the greatest part to precipitate themselves from the top to the bottom, and dash their bodies in pieces: few or none escaped; for if any remained alive, they were put to the sword. Some Spaniards did still keep the bottom of the mountain; but these, hearing the shrieks and cries of them that were killed, and believing some tragical revolution to be above, fled immediately towards the sea, despairing ever to regain the island of Tortuga.

The governors of this island behaved themselves as proprietors and absolute lords thereof till 1664, when the West-India company of France took possession thereof, and sent thither, for their governor, Monsieur Ogeron. These planted the colony for themselves by their factors and servants, thinking to drive some considerable trade from thence with the Spaniards, even as the Hollanders do from Curacao: but this design did not answer; for with other nations they could drive no trade, by reason they could not establish any secure commerce from the beginning with their own; forasmuch as at the first institution of this company in France they agreed with the pirates, hunters, and planters, first possessors of Tortuga, that these should buy all their necessaries from the said company upon trust. And though this agreement was put in execution, yet the factors of the company soon after found that they could not recover either monies or returns from those people, that they were constrained to bring some armed men into the island, in behalf of the company, to get in some of their payments. But neither this endeavour, nor any other, could prevail towards the settling a second trade with those of the island. Hereupon, the company recalled their factors, giving them orders to sell all that was their own in the said plantation, both the servants belonging to the company (which were sold, some for twenty, and others for thirty pieces of eight), as also all other merchandizes and proprieties. And thus all their designs fell to the ground.

On this occasion I was also sold, being a servant under the said company in whose service I left France: but my fortune was very bad, for I fell into the hands of the most cruel and perfidious man that ever was born, who was then governor, or rather lieutenant-general, of that island. This man treated me with all the hard usage imaginable, yea, with that of hunger, with which I thought I should have perished inevitably. Withal, he was willing to let me buy my freedom and liberty, but not under the rate of three hundred pieces of eight, I not being master of one at a time in the world. At last, through the manifold miseries I endured, as also affliction of mind, I was thrown into a dangerous sickness. This misfortune, added to the rest, was the cause of my happiness: for my wicked master, seeing my condition, began to fear lest he should lose his monies with my life. Hereupon he sold me a second time to a surgeon, for seventy pieces of eight. Being with this second master, I began soon to recover my health through the good usage I received, he being much more humane and civil than my first patron. He gave me both clothes and very good food; and after I had served him but one year, he offered me my liberty, with only this condition, that I should pay him one hundred pieces of eight when I was in a capacity so to do; which kind proposal of his I could not but accept with infinite joy and gratitude.

Being now at liberty, though like Adam when he was first created—that is, naked and destitute of all human necessaries—not knowing how to get my living, I determined to enter into the order of the pirates or robbers at sea. Into this society I was received with common consent, both of the superior and vulgar sort, where I continued till 1672. Having assisted them in all their designs and attempts, and served them in many notable exploits (of which hereafter I shall give the reader a true account), I returned to my own native country. But before I begin my relation, I shall say something of the island Hispaniola, which lies towards the western part of America; as also give my reader a brief description thereof, according to my slender ability and experience.

Jacob van Heemskerck (1906)

HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck (1906). Coastal defence ship or pantserschip of the Royal Netherlands Navy / Koninklijke Marine

Jacob van Heemskerck HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck was a coastal defence ship (or simply pantserschip in Dutch) in the Royal Netherlands Navy / Koninklijke Marine. Laid down at Rijkswerf, Amsterdam in 1905. Launched 22 September 1906 and commissioned 22 April 1908. It had a long service history, saw action in World War II as a floating battery both for Netherlands and Germany. Then rebuilt into an accommodation ship after the war and decommissioned only on 13 September 1974. There was also the second vessel of the type, Marten Harpertzoon Tromp. The two were not exactly the same though. Jacob van Heemskerck was slightly smaller and had extra two 150-mm gun installed. Both ships were of a quite unique type, specific to Royal Netherlands Navy. By 1900 Koninklijke Marine practically consisted of two parts, more or less distinct: one for protecting homeland and another mostly concerned with Dutch East Indies defence. Or, in other words, a branch for European affairs and a branch for handling overseas issues. Not only in Dutch East Indies, but also in other parts of the world, where Netherlands had its dominions.

Борьба за Красный Петроград

Корнатовский, Н.А.: Л., изд-во «Красной газеты», 1929

В истории Октябрьской революции и гражданской войны в России Петроград занимает исключительное место. Первый коллективный боец в дни великого Октября - Петроград приобрел себе славу и первого героического города в годы тяжелой, изнурительной гражданской войны. В фокусе ожесточенной борьбы за Петроград символически отразились начало и конец классового поединка в России. Корниловское наступление на Петроград в августе - сентябре 1917 г., явившееся походом буржуазно-помещичьей контрреволюции против революционного пролетариата России, знаменовало собой начало кровопролитной гражданской войны. Это наступление было ликвидировано прежде, чем смогло вылиться в определенные реальные формы. Последняя попытка белой гвардии завладеть Петроградом в октябре 1919 г., совпавшая по времени с переходом в решительное наступление на Москву южной контрреволюции, была уже по существу агонией белого дела, ее предсмертными судорогами и увенчалась победой пролетарской революции. Непосредственно на Петроградском фронте была одержана победа не столько над отечественной контрреволюцией, сколько над вдохновлявшей ее мировой буржуазией. Империалистическая политика стран-победительниц в мировой войне получила серьезный удар на северо-западе России, - удар, предвосхитивший победу Советов на всех фронтах гражданской войны.

Короли подплава в море червонных валетов

Ковалев, Э. А.: М., ЗАО Центрполиграф, 2006

Книга продолжает изданную под названием «Рыцари глубин» хронику рождения и становления подводного плавания в России. Хронологические рамки повествования охватывают период с конца 1917 по июнь 1941 г. Материал основывается на сведениях, отобранных из фондов РГА ВМФ, ЦВМА, ЦВМБ, а также из газетных и журнальных статей. Первые три части книги характеризуют времена Гражданской войны, восстановления подводного плавания страны и его дальнейшего развития. Рассказывается о попытках утверждения новой военно-морской доктрины, строительстве подводных кораблей новых типов, подготовке подводников в условиях надвигающейся войны. Четвертая часть книги содержит краткие биографические сведения о первых советских командирах подводных лодок. Даже поверхностное знакомство с представленными сведениями позволит читателю понять, почему в 1941 г. страна оказалась не готовой в том числе и к войне на море. В Приложении читатель найдет необходимые справки.

Jacob van Heemskerck (1906)

HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck (1906). Coastal defence ship or pantserschip of the Royal Netherlands Navy / Koninklijke Marine

Jacob van Heemskerck HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck was a coastal defence ship (or simply pantserschip in Dutch) in the Royal Netherlands Navy / Koninklijke Marine. Laid down at Rijkswerf, Amsterdam in 1905. Launched 22 September 1906 and commissioned 22 April 1908. It had a long service history, saw action in World War II as a floating battery both for Netherlands and Germany. Then rebuilt into an accommodation ship after the war and decommissioned only on 13 September 1974. There was also the second vessel of the type, Marten Harpertzoon Tromp. The two were not exactly the same though. Jacob van Heemskerck was slightly smaller and had extra two 150-mm gun installed. Both ships were of a quite unique type, specific to Royal Netherlands Navy. By 1900 Koninklijke Marine practically consisted of two parts, more or less distinct: one for protecting homeland and another mostly concerned with Dutch East Indies defence. Or, in other words, a branch for European affairs and a branch for handling overseas issues. Not only in Dutch East Indies, but also in other parts of the world, where Netherlands had its dominions.

Lower Paleolithic reconstructions

Reconstructions of Lower Paleolithic daily life

From some 2.6 million to 300 000 years before present. The dating of the period beginning is rather floating. A new discovery may change it a great deal. It was too much time ago, fossils, artifacts of the period are more like scarce and their interpretations often seem to be confusing. The World is populated by the ancestors of humans, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos. In a way, the split among these may be considered to be the mark of the true beginning of the Lower Paleolithic as a part of human history. It is then that the participants first stepped forward. Presumable early tools are not exemplary enough. Even if being eponymous. It is not exactly clear if they were real tools. And using objects is not an exclusive characteristic of humanity anyway. The use of objects was a purely instinctive practice for many and many hundreds of years. It did not have any principle difference from other animal activities and did not make Homos of Lower and most probably of Middle Paleolithic human in the proper sense of the word. Australopithecus and Homo habilis are typical for the earlier part. Later various subspecies of Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, coexisting much of the period. Occasional use of fire. Later possibly even control of fire.

Куэва-де-лас-Манос

Куэва-де-лас-Манос. Датировка: по одной из версий, между 11 000 и 7 500 годами до н.э.

Рисунки на стенах пещеры на юге Аргентины, провинция Санта-Крус, Патагония. Наиболее известны изображения человеческих рук. Откуда и название: «Cueva de las Manos» - по-испански «Пещера рук». Помимо отпечатков рук, имеются сцены охоты и другие рисунки. Датировки изображений рук пещер Куэва-де-лас-Манос разные - от VI-II в.в. до н.э до XI-X тыс. до н.э. В принципе, материальные обстоятельства таковы, что делать предположения на этот счет трудно. Имеющиеся оценки базируются на датировке сопутствующих находок в пещере.

«Шнелльботы». Германские торпедные катера Второй мировой войны

Морозов, М. Э.: М., АОЗТ редакция журнала «Моделист-конструктор», 1999

Британский историк Питер Смит, известный своими исследованиями боевых действий в Ла-Манше и южной части Северного моря, написал о «шнелльботах», что «к концу войны они оставались единственной силой, не подчинившейся британскому господству на море». Не оставляет сомнения, что в лице «шнелльбота» немецким конструкторам удалось создать отличный боевой корабль. Как ни странно, этому способствовал отказ от высоких скоростных показателей, и, как следствие, возможность оснастить катера дизельными двигателями. Такое решение положительно сказалось на улучшении живучести «москитов». Ни один из них не погиб от случайного возгорания, что нередко происходило в английском и американском флотах. Увеличенное водоизмещение позволило сделать конструкцию катеров весьма устойчивой к боевым повреждениям. Скользящий таранный удар эсминца, подрыв на мине или попадание 2-3 снарядов калибра свыше 100-мм не приводили, как правило, к неизбежной гибели катера (например, 15 марта 1942 года S-105 пришел своим ходом в базу, получив около 80 пробоин от осколков, пуль и снарядов малокалиберных пушек), хотя часто «шнелльботы» приходилось уничтожать из-за условий тактической обстановки. Еще одной особенностью, резко вы­делявшей «шнелльботы» из ряда тор­педных катеров других стран, стала ог­ромная по тем временам дальность плавания - до 800-900 миль 30-узловым ходом (М. Уитли в своей работе «Deutsche Seestreitkraefte 1939-1945» называет даже большую цифру-870 миль 39-узловым ходом, во что, однако, трудно поверить). Фактически германское командование даже не могло ее пол­ностью реализовать из-за большого риска использовать катера в светлое время суток, особенно со второй половины войны. Значительный радиус действия, несвойственные катерам того времени вытянутые круглоскулые обводы и внушительные размеры, по мнению многих, ставили германские торпедные катера в один ряд с миноносцами. С этим можно согласиться с той лишь оговоркой, что всетаки «шнелльботы» оставались торпедными, а не торпедно-артиллерийскими кораблями. Спектр решаемых ими задач был намного уже, чем у миноносцев Второй мировой войны. Проводя аналогию с современной классификацией «ракетный катер» - «малый ракетный корабль», «шнелльботы» правильнее считать малыми торпедными кораблями. Удачной оказалась и конструкция корпуса. Полубак со встроенными тор­педными аппаратами улучшал мореходные качества - «шнелльботы» сохраняли возможность использовать оружие при волнении до 4-5 баллов, а малая высота борта и рубки весьма существенно уменьшали силуэт. В проведенных англичанами после войны сравнительных испытаниях германских и британских катеров выяснилось, что в ночных условиях «немец» визуально замечал противника раньше. Большие нарекания вызывало оружие самообороны - артиллерия. Не имея возможности строить параллельно с торпедными катерами их артиллерийские аналоги, как это делали англичане, немцы с конца 1941 года начали проигрывать «москитам» противника. Позднейшие попытки усилить огневую мощь «шнелльботов» до некоторой степени сократили это отставание, но полностью ликвидировать его не удалось. По части оснащения техническими средствами обнаружения германские катера также серьезно отставали от своих противников. За всю войну они так и не получили более-менее удовлетворительного малогабаритного радара. С появлением станции радиотехнической разведки «Наксос» немцы лишили врага преимущества внезапности, однако не решили проблему обнаружения целей. Таким образом, несмотря на определенные недостатки, в целом германские торпедные катера не только соответствовали предъявляемым требованиям, но и по праву считались одними из лучших представителей своего класса времен Второй мировой войны. Морская коллекция.

Письмо Н. В. Гоголю 15 июля 1847 г.

Белинский В.Г. / Н. В. Гоголь в русской критике: Сб. ст. - М.: Гос. издат. худож. лит. - 1953. - С. 243-252.

Вы только отчасти правы, увидав в моей статье рассерженного человека [1]: этот эпитет слишком слаб и нежен для выражения того состояния, в какое привело меня чтение Вашей книги. Но Вы вовсе не правы, приписавши это Вашим, действительно не совсем лестным отзывам о почитателях Вашего таланта. Нет, тут была причина более важная. Оскорблённое чувство самолюбия ещё можно перенести, и у меня достало бы ума промолчать об этом предмете, если б всё дело заключалось только в нём; но нельзя перенести оскорблённого чувства истины, человеческого достоинства; нельзя умолчать, когда под покровом религии и защитою кнута проповедуют ложь и безнравственность как истину и добродетель. Да, я любил Вас со всею страстью, с какою человек, кровно связанный со своею страною, может любить её надежду, честь, славу, одного из великих вождей её на пути сознания, развития, прогресса. И Вы имели основательную причину хоть на минуту выйти из спокойного состояния духа, потерявши право на такую любовь. Говорю это не потому, чтобы я считал любовь мою наградою великого таланта, а потому, что, в этом отношении, представляю не одно, а множество лиц, из которых ни Вы, ни я не видали самого большего числа и которые, в свою очередь, тоже никогда не видали Вас. Я не в состоянии дать Вам ни малейшего понятия о том негодовании, которое возбудила Ваша книга во всех благородных сердцах, ни о том вопле дикой радости, который издали, при появлении её, все враги Ваши — и литературные (Чичиковы, Ноздрёвы, Городничие и т. п.), и нелитературные, которых имена Вам известны.

Немножко Финляндии

Куприн, А.И. Январь 1908

По одну сторону вагона тянется без конца рыжее, кочковатое, снежное болото, по другую - низкий, густой сосняк, и так - более полусуток. За Белоостровом уже с трудом понимают по-русски. К полудню поезд проходит вдоль голых, гранитных громад, и мы в Гельсингфорсе. Так близко от С.-Петербурга, и вот - настоящий европейский город. С вокзала выходим на широкую площадь, величиной с половину Марсова поля. Налево - массивное здание из серого гранита, немного похожее на церковь в готическом стиле. Это новый финский театр. Направо - строго выдержанный национальный Atheneum. Мы находимся в самом сердце города. Идем в гору по Michelsgatan. Так как улица узка, а дома на ней в четыре-пять этажей, то она кажется темноватой, но тем не менее производит нарядное и солидное впечатление. Большинство зданий в стиле модерн, но с готическим оттенком. Фасады домов без карнизов и орнаментов; окна расположены несимметрично, они часто бывают обрамлены со всех четырех сторон каменным гладким плинтусом, точно вставлены в каменное паспарту. На углах здания высятся полукруглые башни, над ними, так же как над чердачными окнами, островерхие крыши. Перед парадным входом устроена лоджия, нечто вроде глубокой пещеры из темного гранита, с массивными дверями, украшенными красной медью, и с электрическими фонарями, старинной, средневековой формы, в виде ящиков из волнистого пузыристого стекла. Уличная толпа культурна и хорошо знает правую сторону. Асфальтовые тротуары широки, городовые стройны, скромно щеголеваты и предупредительно вежливы, на извозчиках синие пальто с белыми металлическими пуговицами, нет крика и суеты, нет разносчиков и нищих. Приятно видеть в этом многолюдье детей.

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre

Jacques Callot. Les Grandes Misères de la guerre, 1633

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre sont une série de dix-huit eaux-fortes, éditées en 1633, et qui constituent l'une des œuvres maitresses de Jacques Callot. Le titre exact en est (d'après la planche de titre) : Les Misères et les Malheurs de la guerre, mais on appelle fréquemment cette série Les Grandes Misères... pour la différencier de la série Les Petites Misères de la guerre. Cette suite se compose de dix-huit pièces qui représentent, plus complètement que dans les Petites Misères, les malheurs occasionnés par la guerre. Les plaques sont conservées au Musée lorrain de Nancy.

Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского

Братья Лимбург. Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского. Цикл Времена года. XV век.

«Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского» или, в другой версии перевода, «Роскошный часослов герцога Беррийского» (фр. Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry) - иллюстрированный манускрипт XV века. Самая известная часть изображений часослова, цикл «Времена года» состоит из 12 миниатюр с изображением соответствующих сезону деталей жизни на фоне замков. Создание рукописи началось в первой четверти XV века по заказу Жана, герцога Беррийского. Не была закончена при жизни заказчика и своих главных создателей, братьев Лимбург.

Словопрение высокороднейшего юноши Пипина с Альбином Схоластиком

Алкуин. Около 790 (?) года.

1. Пипин. Что такое буква? - Алкуин. Страж истории. 2. Пипин. Что такое слово? - Алкуин. Изменник души. 3. Пипин. Кто рождает слово? - Алкуин. Язык. 4. Пипин. Что такое язык? - Алкуин. Бич воздуха. 5. Пипин. Что такое воздух? - Алкуин. Хранитель жизни. 6. Пипин. Что такое жизнь? - Алкуин. Счастливым радость, несчастным горе, ожидание смерти. 7. Пипин. Что такое смерть? - Алкуин. Неизбежный исход, неизвестный путь, живущих рыдание, завещаний исполнение, хищник человеков. 8. Пипин. Что такое человек? -Алкуин. Раб смерти, мимоидущий путник, гость в своем доме. 9. Пипин. На что похож человек? - Алкуин. На плод. 10. Пипин. Как помещен человек? - Алкуин. Как лампада на ветру. 11. Пипин. Как он окружен? - Алкуин. Шестью стенами. 12. Пипин. Какими? - Алкуин. Сверху, снизу, спереди, сзади, справа и слева. 13. Пипин. Сколько у него спутников? - Алкуин. Четыре. 14. Пипин. Какие? - Алкуин. Жар, холод, сухость, влажность. 15. Пипин. Сколько с ним происходит перемен? - Алкуин. Шесть. 16. Пипин. Какие именно? - Алкуин. Голод и насыщение, покой и труд, бодрствование и сон. 17. Пипин. Что такое сон? - Алкуин. Образ смерти. 18. Пипин. Что составляет свободу человека? - Алкуин. Невинность. 19. Пипин. Что такое голова? - Алкуин.