Chapter XVII


Captain Morgan departs from Chagre, at the head of twelve hundred men, to take the city of Panama.


CAPTAIN MORGAN set forth from the castle of Chagre, towards Panama, August 18, 1670. He had with him twelve hundred men, five boats laden with artillery, and thirty-two canoes. The first day they sailed only six leagues, and came to a place called De los Bracos. Here a party of his men went ashore, only to sleep and stretch their limbs, being almost crippled with lying too much crowded in the boats. Having rested awhile, they went abroad to seek victuals in the neighbouring plantations; but they could find none, the Spaniards being fled, and carrying with them all they had. This day, being the first of their journey, they had such scarcity of victuals, as the greatest part were forced to pass with only a pipe of tobacco, without any other refreshment.

Next day, about evening, they came to a place called Cruz de Juan Gallego. Here they were compelled to leave their boats and canoes, the river being very dry for want of rain, and many trees having fallen into it.

The guides told them, that, about two leagues farther, the country would be very good to continue the journey by land. Hereupon they left one hundred and sixty men on board the boats, to defend them, that they might serve for a refuge in necessity.

Next morning, being the third day, they all went ashore, except those who were to keep the boats. To these Captain Morgan gave order, under great penalties, that no man, on any pretext whatever, should dare to leave the boats, and go ashore; fearing lest they should be surprised by an ambuscade of Spaniards in the neighbouring woods, which appeared so thick as to seem almost impenetrable. This morning beginning their march, the ways proved so bad, that Captain Morgan thought it more convenient to transport some of the men in canoes (though with great labour) to a place farther up the river, called Cedro Bueno. Thus they re-embarked, and the canoes returned for the rest; so that about night they got altogether at the said place. The pirates much desired to meet some Spaniards or Indians, hoping to fill their bellies with their provisions, being reduced to extremity and hunger.

The fourth day the greatest part of the pirates marched by land, being led by one of the guides; the rest went by water farther up, being conducted by another guide, who always went before them, to discover, on both sides the river, the ambuscades. These had also spies, who were very dextrous to give notice of all accidents, or of the arrival of the pirates, six hours, at least, before they came. This day, about noon, they came near a post called Torna Cavallos: here the guide of the canoes cried out, that he perceived an ambuscade. His voice caused infinite joy to all the pirates, hoping to find some provisions to satiate their extreme hunger. Being come to the place, they found nobody in it, the Spaniards being fled, and leaving nothing behind but a few leathern bags, all empty, and a few crumbs of bread scattered on the ground where they had eaten. Being angry at this, they pulled down a few little huts which the Spaniards had made, and fell to eating the leathern bags, to allay the ferment of their stomachs, which was now so sharp as to gnaw their very bowels. Thus they made a huge banquet upon these bags of leather, divers quarrels arising concerning the greatest shares. By the bigness of the place, they conjectured about five hundred Spaniards had been there, whom, finding no victuals, they were now infinitely desirous to meet, intending to devour some of them rather than perish.

Having feasted themselves with those pieces of leather, they marched on, till they came about night to another post, called Torna Munni. Here they found another ambuscade, but as barren as the former. They searched the neighbouring woods, but could not find anything to eat, the Spaniards having been so provident, as not to leave anywhere the least crumb of sustenance, whereby the pirates were now brought to this extremity. Here again he was happy that had reserved since noon any bit of leather to make his supper of, drinking after it a good draught of water for his comfort. Some, who never were out of their mothers' kitchens, may ask, how these pirates could eat and digest those pieces of leather, so hard and dry? Whom I answer, that, could they once experiment what hunger, or rather famine, is, they would find the way as the pirates did. For these first sliced it in pieces, then they beat it between two stones, and rubbed it, often dipping it in water, to make it supple and tender. Lastly, they scraped off the hair, and broiled it. Being thus cooked, they cut it into small morsels, and ate it, helping it down with frequent gulps of water, which, by good fortune, they had at hand.

The fifth day, about noon, they came to a place called Barbacoa. Here they found traces of another ambuscade, but the place totally as unprovided as the former. At a small distance were several plantations, which they searched very narrowly, but could not find any person, animal, or other thing, to relieve their extreme hunger. Finally, having ranged about, and searched a long time, they found a grot, which seemed to be but lately hewn out of a rock, where were two sacks of meal, wheat, and like things, with two great jars of wine, and certain fruits called platanoes. Captain Morgan, knowing some of his men were now almost dead with hunger, and fearing the same of the rest, caused what was found to be distributed among them who were in greatest necessity. Having refreshed themselves with these victuals, they marched anew with greater courage than ever. Such as were weak were put into the canoes, and those commanded to land that were in them before. Thus they prosecuted their journey till late at night; when coming to a plantation, they took up their rest, but without eating anything; for the Spaniards, as before, had swept away all manner of provisions.

The sixth day they continued their march, part by land and part by water. Howbeit, they were constrained to rest very frequently, both for the ruggedness of the way, and their extreme weakness, which they endeavoured to relieve by eating leaves of trees and green herbs, or grass; such was their miserable condition. This day at noon they arrived at a plantation, where was a barn full of maize. Immediately they beat down the doors and ate it dry, as much as they could devour; then they distributed a great quantity, giving every man a good allowance. Thus provided, and prosecuting their journey for about an hour, they came to another ambuscade. This they no sooner discovered, but they threw away their maize, with the sudden hopes of finding all things in abundance. But they were much deceived, meeting neither Indians nor victuals, nor anything else: but they saw, on the other side of the river, about a hundred Indians, who, all fleeing, escaped. Some few pirates leaped into the river to cross it, and try to take any of the Indians, but in vain: for, being much more nimble than the pirates, they not only baffled them, but killed two or three with their arrows; hooting at them, and crying, "Ha, perros! a la savana, a la savana."—"Ha, ye dogs! go to the plain, go to the plain."

This day they could advance no farther, being necessitated to pass the river, to continue their march on the other side. Hereupon they reposed for that night, though their sleep was not profound; for great murmurings were made at Captain Morgan, and his conduct; some being desirous to return home, while others would rather die there than go back a step from their undertaking: others, who had greater courage, laughed and joked at their discourses. Meanwhile, they had a guide who much comforted them, saying, "It would not now be long before they met with people from whom they should reap some considerable advantage."

The seventh day, in the morning, they made clean their arms, and every one discharged his pistol, or musket, without bullet, to try their firelocks. This done, they crossed the river, leaving the post where they had rested, called Santa Cruz, and at noon they arrived at a village called Cruz. Being yet far from the place, they perceived much smoke from the chimneys: the sight hereof gave them great joy, and hopes of finding people and plenty of good cheer. Thus they went on as fast as they could, encouraging one another, saying, "There is smoke comes out of every house: they are making good fires, to roast and boil what we are to eat;" and the like.

At length they arrived there, all sweating and panting, but found no person in the town, nor anything eatable to refresh themselves, except good fires, which they wanted not; for the Spaniards, before their departure, had every one set fire to his own house, except the king's storehouses and stables.

They had not left behind them any beast, alive or dead, which much troubled their minds, not finding anything but a few cats and dogs, which they immediately killed and devoured. At last, in the king's stables, they found, by good fortune, fifteen or sixteen jars of Peru wine, and a leathern sack full of bread. No sooner had they drank of this wine, when they fell sick, almost every man: this made them think the wine was poisoned, which caused a new consternation in the whole camp, judging themselves now to be irrecoverably lost. But the true reason was, their want of sustenance, and the manifold sorts of trash they had eaten. Their sickness was so great, as caused them to remain there till the next morning, without being able to prosecute their journey in the afternoon. This village is seated in 9 deg. 2 min. north latitude, distant from the river Chagre twenty-six Spanish leagues, and eight from Panama. This is the last place to which boats or canoes can come; for which reason they built here storehouses for all sorts of merchandise, which to and from Panama are transported on the backs of mules.

Here Captain Morgan was forced to leaves his canoes, and land all his men, though never so weak; but lest the canoes should be surprised, or take up too many men for their defence, he sent them all back to the place where the boats were, except one, which he hid, that it might serve to carry intelligence. Many of the Spaniards and Indians of this village having fled to the near plantations, Captain Morgan ordered that none should go out of the village, except companies of one hundred together, fearing lest the enemy should take an advantage upon his men. Notwithstanding, one party contravened these orders, being tempted with the desire of victuals: but they were soon glad to fly into the town again, being assaulted with great fury by some Spaniards and Indians, who carried one of them away prisoner. Thus the vigilancy and care of Captain Morgan was not sufficient to prevent every accident.

The eighth day in the morning Captain Morgan sent two hundred men before the body of his army, to discover the way to Panama, and any ambuscades therein: the path being so narrow, that only ten or twelve persons could march abreast, and often not so many. After ten hours' march they came to a place called Quebrada Obscura: here, all on a sudden, three or four thousand arrows were shot at them, they not perceiving whence they came, or who shot them: though they presumed it was from a high rocky mountain, from one side to the other, whereon was a grot, capable of but one horse or other beast laded. This multitude of arrows much alarmed the pirates, especially because they could not discover whence they were discharged. At last, seeing no more arrows, they marched a little farther, and entered a wood: here they perceived some Indians to fly as fast as they could, to take the advantage of another post, thence to observe their march; yet there remained one troop of Indians on the place, resolved to fight and defend themselves, which they did with great courage till their captain fell down wounded; who, though he despaired of life, yet his valour being greater than his strength, would ask no quarter, but, endeavouring to raise himself, with undaunted mind laid hold of his azagayo, or javelin, and struck at one of the pirates; but before he could second the blow, he was shot to death. This was also the fate of many of his companions, who, like good soldiers, lost their lives with their captain, for the defence of their country.

The pirates endeavoured to take some of the Indians prisoners, but they being swifter than the pirates, every one escaped, leaving eight pirates dead, and ten wounded: yea, had the Indians been more dextrous in military affairs, they might have defended that passage, and not let one man pass. A little while after they came to a large champaign, open, and full of fine meadows; hence they could perceive at a distance before them some Indians, on the top of a mountain, near the way by which they were to pass: they sent fifty men, the nimblest they had, to try to catch any of them, and force them to discover their companions: but all in vain; for they escaped by their nimbleness, and presently showed themselves in another place, hallooing to the English, and crying, "A la savana, a la savana, perros Ingleses!" that is, "To the plain, to the plain, ye English dogs!" Meanwhile the ten pirates that were wounded were dressed, and plastered up.

Here was a wood, and on each side a mountain. The Indians possessed themselves of one, and the pirates of the other. Captain Morgan was persuaded the Spaniards had placed an ambuscade there, it lying so conveniently: hereupon, he sent two hundred men to search it. The Spaniards and Indians perceiving the pirates descend the mountain, did so too, as if they designed to attack them; but being got into the wood, out of sight of the pirates, they were seen no more, leaving the passage open.

About night fell a great rain, which caused the pirates to march the faster, and seek for houses to preserve their arms from being wet; but the Indians had set fire to every one, and driven away all their cattle, that the pirates, finding neither houses nor victuals, might be constrained to return: but, after diligent search, they found a few shepherds' huts, but in them nothing to eat. These not holding many men, they placed in them, out of every company, a small number, who kept the arms of the rest: those who remained in the open field endured much hardship that night, the rain not ceasing till morning.

Next morning, about break of day, being the ninth of that tedious journey, Captain Morgan marched on while the fresh air of the morning lasted; for the clouds hanging yet over their heads, were much more favourable than the scorching rays of the sun, the way being now more difficult than before. After two hours' march, they discovered about twenty Spaniards, who observed their motions: they endeavoured to catch some of them, but could not, they suddenly disappearing, and absconding themselves in caves among the rocks, unknown to the pirates. At last, ascending a high mountain, they discovered the South Sea. This happy sight, as if it were the end of their labours, caused infinite joy among them: hence they could descry also one ship, and six boats, which were set forth from Panama, and sailed towards the islands of Tavoga and Tavogilla: then they came to a vale where they found much cattle, whereof they killed good store: here, while some killed and flayed cows, horses, bulls, and chiefly asses, of which there were most; others kindled fires, and got wood to roast them: then cutting the flesh into convenient pieces, or gobbets, they threw them into the fire, and, half carbonaded or roasted, they devoured them, with incredible haste and appetite; such was their hunger, as they more resembled cannibals than Europeans; the blood many times running down from their beards to their waists.

Having satisfied their hunger, Captain Morgan ordered them to continue the march. Here, again, he sent before the main body fifty men to take some prisoners, if they could; for he was much concerned, that in nine days he could not meet one person to inform him of the condition and forces of the Spaniards. About evening they discovered about two hundred Spaniards, who hallooed to the pirates, but they understood not what they said. A little while after they came in sight of the highest steeple of Panama: this they no sooner discovered but they showed signs of extreme joy, casting up their hats into the air, leaping and shouting, just as if they had already obtained the victory, and accomplished their designs. All their trumpets sounded, and drums beat, in token of this alacrity of their minds: thus they pitched their camp for that night, with general content of the whole army, waiting with impatience for the morning, when they intended to attack the city. This evening appeared fifty horse, who came out of the city, on the noise of the drums and trumpets, to observe, as it was thought, their motions: they came almost within musket-shot of the army, with a trumpet that sounded marvellously well. Those on horseback hallooed aloud to the pirates, and threatened them, saying, "Perros! nos veremos," that is, "Ye dogs! we shall meet ye." Having made this menace, they returned to the city, except only seven or eight horsemen, who hovered thereabouts to watch their motions. Immediately after the city fired, and ceased not to play their biggest guns all night long against the camp, but with little or no harm to the pirates, whom they could not easily reach. Now also the two hundred Spaniards, whom the pirates had seen in the afternoon, appeared again, making a show of blocking up the passages, that no pirates might escape their hands: but the pirates, though in a manner besieged, instead of fearing their blockades, as soon as they had placed sentinels about their camp, opened their satchels, and, without any napkins or plates, fell to eating, very heartily, the pieces of bulls' and horses' flesh which they had reserved since noon. This done, they laid themselves down to sleep on the grass, with great repose and satisfaction, expecting only, with impatience, the dawning of the next day.

The tenth day, betimes in the morning, they put all their men in order, and, with drums and trumpets sounding, marched directly towards the city; but one of the guides desired Captain Morgan not to take the common highway, lest they should find in it many ambuscades. He took his advice, and chose another way through the wood, though very irksome and difficult. The Spaniards perceiving the pirates had taken another way they scarce had thought on, were compelled to leave their stops and batteries, and come out to meet them. The governor of Panama put his forces in order, consisting of two squadrons, four regiments of foot, and a huge number of wild bulls, which were driven by a great number of Indians, with some negroes, and others, to help them.

The pirates, now upon their march, came to the top of a little hill, whence they had a large prospect of the city and champaign country underneath. Here they discovered the forces of the people of Panama, in battle array, to be so numerous, that they were surprised with fear, much doubting the fortune of the day: yea, few or none there were but wished themselves at home, or at least free from the obligation of that engagement, it so nearly concerning their lives. Having been some time wavering in their minds, they at last reflected on the straits they had brought themselves into, and that now they must either fight resolutely, or die; for no quarter could be expected from an enemy on whom they had committed so many cruelties. Hereupon they encouraged one another, resolving to conquer, or spend the last drop of blood. Then they divided themselves into three battalions, sending before two hundred bucaniers, who were very dextrous at their guns. Then descending the hill, they marched directly towards the Spaniards, who in a spacious field waited for their coming. As soon as they drew nigh, the Spaniards began to shout and cry, "Viva el rey!" "God save the king!" and immediately their horse moved against the pirates: but the fields being full of quags, and soft underfoot, they could not wheel about as they desired. The two hundred bucaniers, who went before, each putting one knee to the ground, began the battle briskly, with a full volley of shot: the Spaniards defended themselves courageously, doing all they could to disorder the pirates. Their foot endeavoured to second the horse, but were constrained by the pirates to leave them. Finding themselves baffled, they attempted to drive the bulls against them behind, to put them into disorder; but the wild cattle ran away, frighted with the noise of the battle; only some few broke through the English companies, and only tore the colours in pieces, while the bucaniers shot every one of them dead.

The battle having continued two hours, the greatest part of the Spanish horse was ruined, and almost all killed: the rest fled, which the foot seeing, and that they could not possibly prevail, they discharged the shot they had in their muskets, and throwing them down, fled away, every one as he could. The pirates could not follow them, being too much harassed and wearied with their long journey. Many, not being able to fly whither they desired, hid themselves, for that present, among the shrubs of the sea-side, but very unfortunately; for most of them being found by the pirates, were instantly killed, without any quarter. Some religious men were brought prisoners before Captain Morgan; but he, being deaf to their cries, commanded them all to be pistolled, which was done. Soon after they brought a captain to him, whom he examined very strictly; particularly, wherein consisted the forces of those of Panama? He answered, their whole strength consisted in four hundred horse, twenty-four companies of foot, each of one hundred men complete; sixty Indians, and some negroes, who were to drive two thousand wild bulls upon the English, and thus, by breaking their files, put them into a total disorder: beside, that in the city they had made trenches, and raised batteries in several places, in all which they had placed many guns; and that at the entry of the highway, leading to the city, they had built a fort mounted with eight great brass guns, defended by fifty men.

Captain Morgan having heard this, gave orders instantly to march another way; but first he made a review of his men, whereof he found both killed and wounded a considerable number, and much greater than had been believed. Of the Spaniards were found six hundred dead on the place, besides the wounded and prisoners. The pirates, nothing discouraged, seeing their number so diminished, but rather filled with greater pride, perceiving what huge advantage they had obtained against their enemies, having rested some time, prepared to march courageously towards the city, plighting their oaths to one another, that they would fight till not a man was left alive. With this courage they recommenced their march, either to conquer or be conquered; carrying with them all the prisoners.

They found much difficulty in their approach to the city, for within the town the Spaniards had placed many great guns, at several quarters, some charged with small pieces of iron, and others with musket bullets; with all these they saluted the pirates at their approaching, and gave them full and frequent broadsides, firing at them incessantly; so that unavoidably they lost at every step great numbers of men. But these manifest dangers of their lives, nor the sight of so many as dropped continually at their sides, could deter them from advancing, and gaining ground every moment on the enemy; and though the Spaniards never ceased to fire, and act the best they could for their defence, yet they were forced to yield, after three hours' combat. And the pirates having possessed themselves, killed and destroyed all that attempted in the least to oppose them. The inhabitants had transported the best of their goods to more remote and occult places; howbeit, they found in the city several warehouses well stocked with merchandise, as well silks and cloths, as linen and other things of value. As soon as the first fury of their entrance was over, Captain Morgan assembled his men, and commanded them, under great penalties, not to drink or taste any wine; and the reason he gave for it was, because he had intelligence that it was all poisoned by the Spaniards. Howbeit, it was thought he gave these prudent orders to prevent the debauchery of his people, which he foresaw would be very great at the first, after so much hunger sustained by the way; fearing, withal, lest the Spaniards, seeing them in wine, should rally, and, falling on the city, use them as inhumanly as they had used the inhabitants before.

Глава IX

Путешествие натуралиста вокруг света на корабле «Бигль». Глава IX. Санта-Крус в Патагонии и Фолклендские острова

Санта-Крус Экспедиция вверх по реке Индейцы Огромные потоки базальтовой лавы Обломки, которые не могла перенести река Образование долины Кондор, его образ жизни Кордильеры Крупные эрратические валуны Предметы, оставленные индейцами Возвращение на корабль Фолклендские острова Дикие лошади, коровы, кролики Волкообразная лисица Костер из костей Способ охоты на диких коров Геология Каменные потоки Картины геологических потрясений Пингвин Гуси Яйца дориды Колониальные животные 13 апреля 1834 г. — «Бигль» бросил якорь в устье Санта-Крус. Эта река протекает миль на шестьдесят южнее бухты Сан-Хулиан. В свое последнее путешествие капитан Стокс поднялся по ней на 30 миль, но затем из-за недостатка провизии вынужден был вернуться. За исключением того, что было им открыто, едва ли хоть что-нибудь еще было известно об этой большой реке. Капитан Фиц-Рой решил пройти теперь по ее течению настолько далеко, насколько позволит время. 18-го вышли три вельбота с трехнедельным запасом провизии; в состав экспедиции входило 25 человек — этого числа было бы достаточно, чтобы противостоять большому отряду индейцев. При сильном приливе и ясной погоде мы прошли порядочный. путь, вскоре добрались до пресной воды, а к ночи оказались уже за пределами области прилива. Река здесь уже приняла те размеры и вид, которые почти не изменялись до самого конца нашего пути. В ширину она была большей частью от 300 до 400 ярдов и имела около 17 футов глубины посредине.

Средние века

Средние века : период с 476 по 1492 год

Средние века : период с 476 по 1492 год.

Предисловие

Путешествие натуралиста вокруг света на корабле «Бигль». Предисловие

Я уже указывал в предисловии к первому изданию настоящего сочинения и в "Зоологических результатах путешествия на «Бигле»", что в ответ на выраженное капитаном Фиц-Роем пожелание иметь на корабле научного сотрудника, для чего он готов поступиться отчасти своими личными удобствами, я предложил свои услуги, на что было получено — благодаря любезности гидрографа капитана Бофорта — согласие со стороны лордов Адмиралтейства. Так как я чувствую себя всецело обязанным капитану Фиц-Рою за счастливую возможность изучить естественную историю различных стран, которые мы посетили, то, я надеюсь, мне позволено будет выразить здесь лишний раз мою благодарность ему и добавить, что в течение пяти лет, проведенных нами вместе, я встречал с его стороны самую сердечную дружбу и постоянную помощь. У меня навсегда останется чувство глубокой благодарности к капитану Фиц-Рою и ко всем офицерам «Бигля" за то неизменное радушие, с которым они относились ко мне в течение нашего долгого путешествия. Настоящий том содержит в форме дневника историю нашего путешествия и очерк тех наблюдений по естественной истории и геологии, которые, я полагаю, представят известный интерес для широкого круга читателей. В настоящем издании я значительно сократил и исправил одни разделы, а к другим кое-что добавил, чтобы сделать эту книгу более доступной широкому читателю; но, я надеюсь, натуралисты будут помнить, что за подробностями им надлежит обратиться к более обширным сочинениям, в которых изложены научные результаты экспедиции.

Глава XVIII

Путешествие натуралиста вокруг света на корабле «Бигль». Глава XVIII. Таити и Новая Зеландия

Переход через Низменный архипелаг Таити. Вид на остров Горная растительность Вид на Эимео Экскурсия в глубь острова Глубокие ущелья Ряд водопадов Множество полезных дикорастущих растений Трезвость жителей Состояние их нравственности Созыв парламента Новая Зеландия Бухта Айлендс. Хиппа Экскурсия в Уаимате Хозяйство миссионеров Английские сорняки, ныне одичавшие Уаиомио Похороны новозеландки Отплытие в Австралию 20 октября. — Закончив съемку Галапагосского архипелага, мы направились на Таити и начали длинный переход в 3 200 миль. Через несколько дней мы вышли из облачной и сумрачной области океана, простирающейся зимой на большое расстояние от побережья Южной Америки. Теперь мы наслаждались солнечной, ясной погодой и, подгоняемые постоянным пассатом, весело плыли со скоростью 150—160 миль в день. Температура в этой области Тихого океана, лежащей ближе к его центру, выше, чем близ американских берегов. Термометр на юте днем и ночью колебался между 27 и 28°, и это было очень приятно; но уже одним-двумя градусами выше жара становится невыносимой. Мы прошли через Низменный, или Опасный, архипелаг и видели несколько тех любопытнейших колец из коралловой почвы, чуть возвышающихся над водой, которым дали название лагунных островов. Над длинной, ослепительно белой береговой полосой тянется зеленая полоса растительности; уходя в обе стороны, полосы быстро суживаются вдали и теряются за горизонтом. С верхушки-мачты внутри кольца видно обширное пространство спокойной воды.

Chapter X

The voyage of the Beagle. Chapter X. Tierra Del Fuego

Tierra del Fuego, first arrival Good Success Bay An Account of the Fuegians on board Interview With the Savages Scenery of the Forests Cape Horn Wigwam Cove Miserable Condition of the Savages Famines Cannibals Matricide Religious Feelings Great Gale Beagle Channel Ponsonby Sound Build Wigwams and settle the Fuegians Bifurcation of the Beagle Channel Glaciers Return to the Ship Second Visit in the Ship to the Settlement Equality of Condition amongst the Natives DECEMBER 17th, 1832.—Having now finished with Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, I will describe our first arrival in Tierra del Fuego. A little after noon we doubled Cape St. Diego, and entered the famous strait of Le Maire. We kept close to the Fuegian shore, but the outline of the rugged, inhospitable Statenland was visible amidst the clouds. In the afternoon we anchored in the Bay of Good Success. While entering we were saluted in a manner becoming the inhabitants of this savage land. A group of Fuegians partly concealed by the entangled forest, were perched on a wild point overhanging the sea; and as we passed by, they sprang up and waving their tattered cloaks sent forth a loud and sonorous shout. The savages followed the ship, and just before dark we saw their fire, and again heard their wild cry. The harbour consists of a fine piece of water half surrounded by low rounded mountains of clay-slate, which are covered to the water's edge by one dense gloomy forest. A single glance at the landscape was sufficient to show me how widely different it was from anything I had ever beheld.

Глава XIII

Путешествие натуралиста вокруг света на корабле «Бигль». Глава XIII. Чилоэ и острова Чонос

Чилоэ Общий обзор Поездка на шлюпках Туземные индейцы Кастро Доверчивая лисица Восхождение на Сан-Педро Архипелаг Чонос Полуостров Трес-Монтес Гранитный кряж Моряки, потерпевшие крушение ГаваньЛоу Дикий картофель Торфяная формация Myopotamus, выдра и мыши Чеукау и лающая птица Opetiorhynchus Своеобразный характер птиц Буревестники 10 ноября — «Бигль» отплыл из Вальпараисо на юг для съемки южной части Чили, острова Чилоэ и изрезанных берегов так называемого архипелага Чонос до полуострова Трес-Монтес на юге. 21-го мы бросили якорь в бухте Сан-Карлоса, главного города Чилоэ. Остров имеет около 90 миль в длину, а в ширину — несколько менее 30. Местность холмистая, но не гористая, сплошь покрыта лесом, за исключением нескольких зеленых клочков, расчищенных вокруг крытых тростником хижин. Издали вид острова несколько напоминает Огненную Землю; но, когда подходишь поближе, видишь, что леса здесь несравненно красивее. Место мрачных буков южных берегов тут занимают разнообразные вечнозеленые деревья и растения тропического характера. Зимой климат отвратителен, а летом лишь немногим лучше. Мне кажется, в умеренном поясе найдется немного мест, где выпадает столько дождей. Ветры здесь очень сильны, а небо почти всегда в облаках; ясная погода в продолжение недели — случай необыкновенный.

Глава 13

Борьба за Красный Петроград. Глава 13

Наряду с деятельностью районных штабов внутренней обороны представляется в высшей степени желательным просмотреть соответствующую подготовку к обороне со стороны наиболее крупных фабрично-заводских предприятий. В таких предприятиях кипела своя производственная работа, направленная исключительно на то, чтобы оказать посильную поддержку в первую очередь полевым частям Красной армии. Промышленные гиганты Петрограда являлись своего рода революционными очагами, где ковалось оружие для фронта и где в процессе производства, не знавшего часов отдыха, вырабатывалась коллективная воля к победе над врагом. В связи с этим работа крупных фабрично-заводских предприятий Петрограда носила отнюдь не местный и не районный характер, а имела широкое значение в ходе подготовки всего города к обороне изнутри. Она являлась одним из действенных реальных факторов, способствовавших обороне Петрограда. [444] Сохранившиеся материалы дают возможность остановиться только на работе Путиловского, Ижорского, Сестрорецкого оружейного и Охтинского порохового заводов. На Путиловском заводе после 14 октября была проведена партийная мобилизация, которая дала около 300 чел. по заводу и около 200 чел.

О русском крестьянстве

Горький, М.: Берлин, Издательство И.П.Ладыжникова, 1922

Люди, которых я привык уважать, спрашивают: что я думаю о России? Мне очень тяжело все, что я думаю о моей стране, точнee говоря, о русском народe, о крестьянстве, большинстве его. Для меня было бы легче не отвечать на вопрос, но - я слишком много пережил и знаю для того, чтоб иметь право на молчание. Однако прошу понять, что я никого не осуждаю, не оправдываю, - я просто рассказываю, в какие формы сложилась масса моих впечатлений. Мнение не есть осуждениe, и если мои мнения окажутся ошибочными, - это меня не огорчит. В сущности своей всякий народ - стихия анархическая; народ хочет как можно больше есть и возможно меньше работать, хочет иметь все права и не иметь никаких обязанностей. Атмосфера бесправия, в которой издревле привык жить народ, убеждает его в законности бесправия, в зоологической естественности анархизма. Это особенно плотно приложимо к массе русского крестьянства, испытавшего болee грубый и длительный гнет рабства, чем другие народы Европы. Русский крестьянин сотни лет мечтает о каком-то государстве без права влияния на волю личности, на свободу ее действий, - о государстве без власти над человеком. В несбыточной надежде достичь равенства всех при неограниченной свободe каждого народ русский пытался организовать такое государство в форме казачества, Запорожской Сечи. Еще до сего дня в темной душе русского сектанта не умерло представление о каком-то сказочном «Опоньском царстве», оно существует гдe-то «на краю земли», и в нем люди живут безмятежно, не зная «антихристовой суеты», города, мучительно истязуемого судорогами творчества культуры.

Глава 7

Борьба за Красный Петроград. Глава 7

Одновременно с разворачивавшимися событиями на Петроградском фронте и первым наступлением белой армии на Петроград группа представителей русской торгово-промышленной буржуазии вела в Финляндии контрреволюционную работу, направленную к объединению всех действовавших против Советской России сил и заключению военного союза с прибалтийскими государствами. При помощи финляндской буржуазии русская контрреволюция получила возможность приступить к непосредственной организации антисоветского фронта. В общих чертах эта деятельность сводилась к следующему. С разрешения финляндского правительства в Гельсингфорсе в конце 1918 года был образован особый комитет по делам эмигрирующей из Советской России русской буржуазии под председательством А. Ф. Трепова. В начале 1919 г. в связи с прибытием из Петрограда П. Б. Струве и А. В. Карташева в Выборге было созвано совещание представителей русских торгово-промышленных [242] кругов, на котором председателем указанного комитета вместо Трепова был избран представитель Национального центра Карташев. С приездом в Гельсингфорс генерала Н. Н. Юденича, бывшего командующего Кавказской армией в дни мировой войны и заслужившего хорошую репутацию среди русской буржуазии, вся политика комитета по делам русских в Финляндии была направлена по линии оказания поддержки генералу Юденичу. Выделенный из состава комитета совет промышленности под председательством Ф. Ф. Утемана занял под общим поручительством в гельсингфорсских банках 2 миллиона марок для содействия всем начинаниям русского генерала. Настроение в среде представителей русской буржуазии, находившейся в Финляндии, в смысле их внешней ориентации было не вполне установившимся.

Диагностируя диктаторов

Карл Густав Юнг : Диагностируя диктаторов : Аналитическая психология: прошлое и настоящее / К.Г.Юнг, Э. Cэмюэлс, В.Одайник, Дж. Хаббэк. Сост. В.В. Зеленский, А.М. Руткевич. М.: Мартис, 1995

Октябрь 1938 г. Запоминающийся интеллигентный и неутомимый X. Р. Никербокер был одним из лучших американских иностранных корреспондентов. Родился в Техасе в 1899 г.; в 1923 г. в Мюнхене, где он изучал психиатрию, во время пивного путча Гитлера переключился на журналистику, в дальнейшем большая часть его карьеры связана с Берлином. Но он также печатал материалы о Советском Союзе (премия Пулитцера 1931 г.), итало-эфиопской войне, гражданской войне в Испании, японо-китайской войне, присоединении Австрии, Мюнхенском соглашении. Он писал репортажи о битве за Британию, о войне в Тихом океане: погиб в 1949 г. в Бомбее в авиационной катастрофе. Никербокер посетил Юнга в Кюснахте в октябре 1938 г., приехав непосредственно из Праги, где оказался свидетелем распада Чехословакии. Это интервью, одно из самых продолжительных, которое дал Юнг, было опубликовано в «Херст Интернейшенл-Космополитен» за январь 1939 г. и в несколько измененном виде вошло в книгу Никербокера «Завтра Гитлер?» (1941). В основу настоящей публикации положена статья из «Kocмополитен», из которой исключили всякий иной материал, кроме вопросов и ответов. В этом же выпуске журнала был помещен биографический очерк о Юнге, написанный Элизабет Шепли Серджент. Эти статьи из «Космополитен» сделали имя Юнга известным в США. Никербокер: Что произойдет, если Гитлера, Муссолини и Сталина, всех вместе, закрыть на замок, выделив для них на неделю буханку хлеба и кувшин воды? Кто-то получит все или они разделят хлеб и воду? Юнг: Я сомневаюсь, что они поделятся.

Chapter VI

The voyage of the Beagle. Chapter VI. Bahia Blanca to Buenos Ayres

Set out for Buenos Ayres Rio Sauce Sierra Ventana Third Posta Driving Horses Bolas Partridges and Foxes Features of the Country Long-legged Plover Teru-tero Hail-storm Natural Enclosures in the Sierra Tapalguen Flesh of Puma Meat Diet Guardia del Monte Effects of Cattle on the Vegetation Cardoon Buenos Ayres Corral where Cattle are Slaughtered SEPTEMBER 18th.—I hired a Gaucho to accompany me on my ride to Buenos Ayres, though with some difficulty, as the father of one man was afraid to let him go, and another, who seemed willing, was described to me as so fearful, that I was afraid to take him, for I was told that even if he saw an ostrich at a distance, he would mistake it for an Indian, and would fly like the wind away. The distance to Buenos Ayres is about four hundred miles, and nearly the whole way through an uninhabited country. We started early in the morning; ascending a few hundred feet from the basin of green turf on which Bahia Blanca stands, we entered on a wide desolate plain. It consists of a crumbling argillaceo-calcareous rock, which, from the dry nature of the climate, supports only scattered tufts of withered grass, without a single bush or tree to break the monotonous uniformity. The weather was fine, but the atmosphere remarkably hazy; I thought the appearance foreboded a gale, but the Gauchos said it was owing to the plain, at some great distance in the interior, being on fire. After a long gallop, having changed horses twice, we reached the Rio Sauce: it is a deep, rapid, little stream, not above twenty-five feet wide.

20. Последовательность событий на склоне Холат-Сяхыл в первом приближении

Перевал Дятлова. Смерть, идущая по следу... 20. Последовательность событий на склоне Холат-Сяхыл в первом приближении

Попробуем нарисовать общую картину произошедшего на склоне Холат-Сяхыл в первом, так сказать, приближении. Около 15:00, возможно несколько позже, в момент окончания установки палатки, когда оставалось лишь закрепить на растяжках конёк крыши, группа Игоря Дятлова столкнулась с угрозой физической расправы, которая исходила от вооружённых огнестрельным оружием людей. На самом начальном этапе развития конфликта от группы "дятловцев" отделились Тибо-Бриньоль и Золотарёв, которые наблюдали за происходившим у палатки с некоторого удаления, не имея ни малейшей возможности повлиять на ситуацию. Вооружённые люди в силу неких особых причин не ставили перед собой задачу убить туристов немедленно и возле палатки - они рассчитывали "выморозить" группу, выгнав её на холод. С этой целью неизвестные потребовали, чтобы "дятловцы" сняли обвуь, рукавицы и головные уборы. Во время раздевания возникли пререкания, последовали ответные угрозы со стороны туристов и они, скорее всего, проявили пассивное неподчинение. Можно предполагать, что в эти минуты особенно активно демонстрировали возмущение девушки, спровоцировав первое, пока незначительное, применение силы со стороны нападавших. Косвенно на это указывают разрывы деталей одежды Зины Колмогоровой (рукав свитера). Тогда же мог получить сильные разрывы нижней части штанины и Георгий Кривонищенко (тех самых шаровар, что впоследствии будут обнаружены на теле Людмилы Дубининой). Возможно, возникшую заварушку Рустем Слободин использовал для того, чтобы напасть на одного из тех, кто грозил оружием.