Chapter II


A description of Tortuga
The fruits and plants there
How the French first settled there, at two several times, and forced out the Spaniards
The author twice sold in the said island.


THE island of Tortuga is situate on the north side of Hispaniola, in 20 deg. 30 min. latitude; its just extent is threescore leagues about. The Spaniards, who gave name to this island, called it so from the shape of the land, in some manner resembling a great sea-tortoise, called by them Tortuga-de-mar. The country is very mountainous, and full of rocks, and yet thick of lofty trees, that grow upon the hardest of those rocks, without partaking of a softer soil. Hence it comes that their roots, for the greatest part, are seen naked, entangled among the rocks like the branching of ivy against our walls. That part of this island which stretches to the north is totally uninhabited: the reason is, first, because it is incommodious, and unhealthy: and, secondly, for the ruggedness of the coast, that gives no access to the shore, unless among rocks almost inaccessible: for this cause it is peopled only on the south part, which hath only one port indifferently good: yet this harbour has two entries, or channels, which afford passage to ships of seventy guns; the port itself being without danger, and capable of receiving a great number of vessels. The inhabited parts, of which the first is called the Low-Lands, or Low-Country: this is the chief among the rest, because it contains the port aforesaid. The town is called Cayona, and here live the chiefest and richest planters of the island. The second part is called the Middle Plantation: its soil is yet almost new, being only known to be good for tobacco. The third is named Ringot, and is situate towards the west part of the island. The fourth and last is called the Mountain, in which place were made the first plantations upon this island.

As to the wood that grows here, we have already said that the trees are exceeding tall, and pleasing to the sight; whence no man will doubt, but they may be applied to several uses. Such is the yellow saunder, which by the inhabitants is called bois de chandel, or, in English, candle-wood, because it burns like a candle, and serves them with light while they fish by night. Here grows, also, lingnum sanctum, or guaiacum: its virtues are very well known, more especially to those who observe not the Seventh Commandment, and are given to impure copulations!—physicians drawing hence, in several compositions, the greatest antidote for venereal diseases; as also for cold and viscous humours. The trees, likewise, which afford gummi elemi, grow here in great abundance; as doth radix Chinæ, or China root: yet this is not so good as that of other parts of the western world. It is very white and soft, and serves for pleasant food to the wild boars, when they can find nothing else. This island, also, is not deficient in aloes, nor an infinite number of the other medicinal herbs, which may please the curiosity of such as are given to their contemplation: moreover, for building of ships, or any other sort of architecture, here are found several sorts of timber. The fruits, likewise, which grow here abundantly, are nothing inferior, in quantity or quality, to what other islands produce. I shall name only some of the most ordinary and common: such are magnoit, potatoes, Abajou apples, yannas, bacones, paquays, carosoles, mamayns, annananes, and divers other sorts, which I omit to specify. Here grow likewise, in great numbers, those trees called palmitoes, or palmites, whence is drawn a certain juice which serves the inhabitants instead of wine, and whose leaves cover their houses instead of tiles.

In this island aboundeth, also, the wild boar. The governor hath prohibited the hunting of them with dogs, fearing lest, the island being but small, the whole race of them, in a short time, should be destroyed. The reason why he thought convenient to preserve these wild beasts was, that, in case of any invasion, the inhabitants might sustain themselves with their food, especially were they once constrained to retire to the woods and mountains. Yet this sort of game is almost impeded by itself, by reason of the many rocks and precipices, which, for the greatest part, are covered with little shrubs, very green and thick; whence the huntsmen have oftentimes fallen, and left us the sad remembrance of many a memorable disaster.

At a certain time of the year there resort to Tortuga large flocks of wild pigeons, and then the inhabitants feed on them very plentifully, having more than they can consume, and leaving totally to their repose all other sorts of fowl, both wild and tame; that so, in the absence of the pigeons, these may supply their place. But as nothing in the universe, though never so pleasant, can be found, but what hath something of bitterness with it; the very symbol of this truth we see in the aforesaid pigeons: for these, the season being past, can scarce be touched with the tongue, they become so extremely lean, and bitter even to admiration. The reason of this bitterness is attributed to a certain seed which they eat about that time, even as bitter as gall. About the sea-shores, everywhere, are found great multitudes of crabs, both of land and sea, and both sorts very big. These are good to feed servants and slaves, whose palates they please, but are very hurtful to the sight: besides, being eaten too often, they cause great giddiness in the head, with much weakness of the brain; so that, very frequently, they are deprived of sight for a quarter of an hour.

The French having settled in the isle of St. Christopher, planted there a sort of trees, of which, at present, there possibly may be greater quantities; with the timber whereof they made long-boats, and hoys, which they sent thence westward, well manned and victualled, to discover other islands. These setting sail from St. Christopher, came within sight of Hispaniola, where they arrived with abundance of joy. Having landed, they marched into the country, where they found large quantities of cattle; such as cows, bulls, horses, and wild boars: but finding no great profit in these animals, unless they could enclose them, and knowing, likewise, the island to be pretty well peopled by the Spaniards, they thought it convenient to enter upon and seize the island of Tortuga. This they performed without any difficulty, there being upon the island no more than ten or twelve Spaniards to guard it. These few men let the French come in peaceably, and possess the island for six months, without any trouble; meanwhile they passed and repassed, with their canoes, to Hispaniola, from whence they transported many people, and at last began to plant the whole island of Tortuga. The few Spaniards remaining there, perceiving the French to increase their number daily, began, at last, to repine at their prosperity, and grudge them the possession: hence they gave notice to others of their nation, their neighbours, who sent several boats, well armed and manned, to dispossess the French. This expedition succeeded according to their desires; for the new possessors, seeing the great number of Spaniards, fled with all they had to the woods, and hence, by night, they wafted over with canoes to the island of Hispaniola: this they the more easily performed, having no women or children with them, nor any great substance to carry away. Here they also retired into the woods, both to seek for food, and from thence, with secrecy, to give intelligence to others of their own faction; judging for certain, that within a little while they should be in a capacity to hinder the Spaniards from fortifying in Tortuga.

Meanwhile, the Spaniards of the great island ceased not to seek after their new guests, the French, with intent to root them out of the woods if possible, or cause them to perish with hunger; but this design soon failed, having found that the French were masters both of good guns, powder, and bullets. Here therefore the fugitives waited for a certain opportunity, wherein they knew the Spaniards were to come from Tortuga with arms, and a great number of men, to join with those of the greater island for their destruction. When this occasion offered, they in the meanwhile deserting the woods where they were, returned to Tortuga, and dispossessed the small number of Spaniards that remained at home. Having so done, they fortified themselves the best they could, thereby to prevent the return of the Spaniards in case they should attempt it. Moreover, they sent immediately to the governor of St. Christopher's, craving his aid and relief, and demanding of him a governor, the better to be united among themselves, and strengthened on all occasions. The governor of St. Christopher's received their petition with much satisfaction, and, without delay, sent Monsieur le Passeur to them in quality of a governor, together with a ship full of men, and all necessaries for their establishment and defence. No sooner had they received this recruit, but the governor commanded a fortress to be built upon the top of a high rock, from whence he could hinder the entrance of any ships or other vessels to the port. To this fort no other access could be had, than by almost climbing through a very narrow passage that was capable only of receiving two persons at once, and those not without difficulty. In the middle of this rock was a great cavity, which now serves for a storehouse: besides, here was great convenience for raising a battery. The fort being finished, the governor commanded two guns to be mounted, which could not be done without great toil and labour; as also a house to be built within the fort, and afterwards the narrow way, that led to the said fort, to be broken and demolished, leaving no other ascent thereto than by a ladder. Within the fort gushes out a plentiful fountain of pure fresh water, sufficient to refresh a garrison of a thousand men. Being possessed of these conveniences, and the security these things might promise, the French began to people the island, and each of them to seek their living; some by hunting, others by planting tobacco, and others by cruizing and robbing upon the coasts of the Spanish islands, which trade is continued by them to this day.

The Spaniards, notwithstanding, could not behold, but with jealous eyes, the daily increase of the French in Tortuga, fearing lest, in time, they might by them be dispossessed also of Hispaniola. Thus taking an opportunity (when many of the French were abroad at sea, and others employed in hunting), with eight hundred men, in several canoes, they landed again in Tortuga, almost without being perceived by the French; but finding that the governor had cut down many trees for the better discovery of any enemy in case of an assault, as also that nothing of consequence could be done without great guns, they consulted about the fittest place for raising a battery. This place was soon concluded to be the top of a mountain which was in sight, seeing that from thence alone they could level their guns at the fort, which now lay open to them since the cutting down of the trees by the new possessors. Hence they resolved to open a way for the carriage of some pieces of ordnance to the top. This mountain is somewhat high, and the upper part thereof plain, from whence the whole island may be viewed: the sides thereof are very rugged, by reason a great number of inaccessible rocks do surround it; so that the ascent was very difficult, and would always have been the same, had not the Spaniards undergone the immense labour and toil of making the way before mentioned, as I shall now relate.

The Spaniards had with them many slaves and Indians, labouring men, whom they call matades, or, in English, half-yellow men; these they ordered with iron tools to dig a way through the rocks. This they performed with the greatest speed imaginable; and through this way, by the help of many ropes and pulleys, they at last made shift to get up two pieces of ordnance, wherewith they made a battery next day, to play on the fort. Meanwhile, the French knowing these designs, prepared for a defence (while the Spaniards were busy about the battery) sending notice everywhere to their companions for help. Thus the hunters of the island all joined together, and with them all the pirates who were not already too far from home. These landed by night at Tortuga, lest they should be seen by the Spaniards; and, under the same obscurity of the night, they all together, by a back way, climbed the mountain where the Spaniards were posted, which they did the more easily being acquainted with these rocks. They came up at the very instant that the Spaniards, who were above, were preparing to shoot at the fort, not knowing in the least of their coming. Here they set upon them at their backs with such fury as forced the greatest part to precipitate themselves from the top to the bottom, and dash their bodies in pieces: few or none escaped; for if any remained alive, they were put to the sword. Some Spaniards did still keep the bottom of the mountain; but these, hearing the shrieks and cries of them that were killed, and believing some tragical revolution to be above, fled immediately towards the sea, despairing ever to regain the island of Tortuga.

The governors of this island behaved themselves as proprietors and absolute lords thereof till 1664, when the West-India company of France took possession thereof, and sent thither, for their governor, Monsieur Ogeron. These planted the colony for themselves by their factors and servants, thinking to drive some considerable trade from thence with the Spaniards, even as the Hollanders do from Curacao: but this design did not answer; for with other nations they could drive no trade, by reason they could not establish any secure commerce from the beginning with their own; forasmuch as at the first institution of this company in France they agreed with the pirates, hunters, and planters, first possessors of Tortuga, that these should buy all their necessaries from the said company upon trust. And though this agreement was put in execution, yet the factors of the company soon after found that they could not recover either monies or returns from those people, that they were constrained to bring some armed men into the island, in behalf of the company, to get in some of their payments. But neither this endeavour, nor any other, could prevail towards the settling a second trade with those of the island. Hereupon, the company recalled their factors, giving them orders to sell all that was their own in the said plantation, both the servants belonging to the company (which were sold, some for twenty, and others for thirty pieces of eight), as also all other merchandizes and proprieties. And thus all their designs fell to the ground.

On this occasion I was also sold, being a servant under the said company in whose service I left France: but my fortune was very bad, for I fell into the hands of the most cruel and perfidious man that ever was born, who was then governor, or rather lieutenant-general, of that island. This man treated me with all the hard usage imaginable, yea, with that of hunger, with which I thought I should have perished inevitably. Withal, he was willing to let me buy my freedom and liberty, but not under the rate of three hundred pieces of eight, I not being master of one at a time in the world. At last, through the manifold miseries I endured, as also affliction of mind, I was thrown into a dangerous sickness. This misfortune, added to the rest, was the cause of my happiness: for my wicked master, seeing my condition, began to fear lest he should lose his monies with my life. Hereupon he sold me a second time to a surgeon, for seventy pieces of eight. Being with this second master, I began soon to recover my health through the good usage I received, he being much more humane and civil than my first patron. He gave me both clothes and very good food; and after I had served him but one year, he offered me my liberty, with only this condition, that I should pay him one hundred pieces of eight when I was in a capacity so to do; which kind proposal of his I could not but accept with infinite joy and gratitude.

Being now at liberty, though like Adam when he was first created—that is, naked and destitute of all human necessaries—not knowing how to get my living, I determined to enter into the order of the pirates or robbers at sea. Into this society I was received with common consent, both of the superior and vulgar sort, where I continued till 1672. Having assisted them in all their designs and attempts, and served them in many notable exploits (of which hereafter I shall give the reader a true account), I returned to my own native country. But before I begin my relation, I shall say something of the island Hispaniola, which lies towards the western part of America; as also give my reader a brief description thereof, according to my slender ability and experience.

Chapter III

The pirates of Panama or The buccaneers of America : Chapter III

A Description of Hispaniola. Also a Relation of the French Buccaneers. THE large and rich island called Hispaniola is situate from 17 degrees to 19 degrees latitude; the circumference is 300 leagues; the extent from east to west 120; its breadth almost 50, being broader or narrower at certain places. This island was first discovered by Christopher Columbus, a.d. 1492; he being sent for this purpose by Ferdinand, king of Spain; from which time to this present the Spaniards have been continually possessors thereof. There are upon this island very good and strong cities, towns, and hamlets, as well as a great number of pleasant country houses and plantations, the effects of the care and industry of the Spaniards its inhabitants. The chief city and metropolis hereof is Santo Domingo; being dedicated to St. Dominic, from whom it derives its name. It is situate towards the south, and affords a most excellent prospect; the country round about being embellished with innumerable rich plantations, as also verdant meadows and fruitful gardens; all which produce plenty and variety of excellent pleasant fruits, according to the nature of those countries. The governor of the island resides in this city, which is, as it were, the storehouse of all the cities, towns, and villages, which hence export and provide themselves with all necessaries for human life; and yet hath it this particularity above many other cities, that it entertains no commerce with any nation but its own, the Spaniards. The greatest part of the inhabitants are rich and substantial merchants or shopkeepers. Another city of this island is San Jago, or St.

VI. Каторжник

Побег из ГУЛАГа. Часть 2. VI. Каторжник

Мы встретились. Мы снова втроем. Сын держит отца за одну руку, а я за другую. У него руки горят и дрожат, у меня холодные, как ледышки. Мальчик гладит ему руку, пальто, колени. Он скорее приходит в себя, чем мы, взрослые. — Ты меня узнал с такой бородой? — наконец выговаривает отец. — Узнал, — отвечает сын серьезно. — Ты теперь трубку куришь? — Трубку. Ты почему догадался? — У тебя в кармане трубка. — Верно, — он достал трубку и берет ее в рот. Как странно... Лицо и то, и не то. Сколько веков прошло с тех пор, как мы смотрели в последний раз друг на друга. Или это было в какой-то другой жизни? На кого он похож? Знаю. Суриков. Стрельцы перед казнью. Тех кончили, этого помиловали, но ходит он, как наполовину казненный. Он страшно бледен, но от ветра, от житья в холодных бараках кожа загрубела, потемнела. По лицу лежат черные тени: под глазами, под обросшими скулами, вокруг рта. Черная борода выросла, как попало; из-за нее лицо еще больше кажется несовременным, нездешним. Шея ужасна: худая, сухая, она торчит из ворота застиранной, грубой рубашки с завязками вместо запонок или пуговиц. Кажется, будто голова не по шее, слишком тяжела. Руки, как шея, — жесткие, загрубелые и страшно худые. Как жутко на него смотреть! Год назад его увели из дому молодым и сильным: ему было сорок два года, но ему давали тридцать пять.

Chapter VI

The voyage of the Beagle. Chapter VI. Bahia Blanca to Buenos Ayres

Set out for Buenos Ayres Rio Sauce Sierra Ventana Third Posta Driving Horses Bolas Partridges and Foxes Features of the Country Long-legged Plover Teru-tero Hail-storm Natural Enclosures in the Sierra Tapalguen Flesh of Puma Meat Diet Guardia del Monte Effects of Cattle on the Vegetation Cardoon Buenos Ayres Corral where Cattle are Slaughtered SEPTEMBER 18th.—I hired a Gaucho to accompany me on my ride to Buenos Ayres, though with some difficulty, as the father of one man was afraid to let him go, and another, who seemed willing, was described to me as so fearful, that I was afraid to take him, for I was told that even if he saw an ostrich at a distance, he would mistake it for an Indian, and would fly like the wind away. The distance to Buenos Ayres is about four hundred miles, and nearly the whole way through an uninhabited country. We started early in the morning; ascending a few hundred feet from the basin of green turf on which Bahia Blanca stands, we entered on a wide desolate plain. It consists of a crumbling argillaceo-calcareous rock, which, from the dry nature of the climate, supports only scattered tufts of withered grass, without a single bush or tree to break the monotonous uniformity. The weather was fine, but the atmosphere remarkably hazy; I thought the appearance foreboded a gale, but the Gauchos said it was owing to the plain, at some great distance in the interior, being on fire. After a long gallop, having changed horses twice, we reached the Rio Sauce: it is a deep, rapid, little stream, not above twenty-five feet wide.

Конституция (Основной Закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик - 1924 год

Конституция (Основной Закон) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Утверждена II Съездом Советов Союза ССР от 31 января 1924 года

Центральный Исполнительный Комитет Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, торжественно провозглашая незыблемость основ Советской власти, во исполнение постановления 1 съезда Советов Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, а также на основании Договора об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, принятого на 1 съезде Советов Союза Советских Социалистических Республик в городе Москве 30 декабря 1922 года, и, принимая во внимание поправки и изменения, предложенные центральными исполнительными комитетами союзных республик, постановляет: Декларация об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик и Договор об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик составляют Основной Закон (Конституцию) Союза Советских Социалистических Республик. Раздел первый Декларация об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Со времени образования советских республик государства, мира раскололись на два лагеря: лагерь капитализма и лагерь социализма. Там, в лагере капитализма — национальная вражда и неравенство колониальное рабство и шовинизм, национальное угнетение и погромы, империалистические зверства и войны. Здесь, в лагере социализма — взаимное доверие и мир, национальная свобода и равенство, мирное сожительство и братское сотрудничество народов. Попытки капиталистического мира на протяжении десятков лет разрешить вопрос о национальности путем совмещения свободного развития народов с системой эксплоатации человека человеком оказались бесплодными. Наоборот, клубок национальных противоречий все более запутывается, угрожая самому существованию капитализма.

12. «Сон Попова»

Записки «вредителя». Часть II. Тюрьма. 12. «Сон Попова»

Книга в тюрьме — это совсем не то, что книга на воле. Это, может быть, единственный настоящий момент отдыха, и то, что было много раз прочитано, приобретает совершенно новый смысл и силу. Кроме того, книг так мало, получить их так трудно, что одно это придает им особую ценность и значение. В общую камеру с числом заключенных около ста на две недели выдается тридцать книг, из них десять книг политического содержания, которые никто читать не хочет. В одиночках, в тех редких случаях, когда разрешены книги, выдаются на две недели четыре книги, из которых одна политическая. Тюремная библиотека на Шпалерной составлена была до революции и оказалась неплохой по составу. После революции часть книг, как, например, Библия, Евангелие и многие другие, была изъята; часть книг, особенно русские классики, была растащена, зато библиотека пополняется тощими произведениями советских писателей и, главным образом, книгами политическими. При этом надо сказать, что основных политических или политико-экономических трудов почти нет, а все забито мелкими брошюрками, внутрипартийным переругиванием, теряющим смысл, пока книга печатается, и пр. Часто это преподношения авторов крупным членам ГПУ, которые, желая избавиться от лишнего хлама в доме, жертвуют его в тюремную библиотеку. Книги эти обычно поступают неразрезанными; часто имеют трогательные авторские надписи, которые только и прочитываются заключенными с некоторым интересом. Читают же охотнее всего Лескова, Л. Тостого, Достоевского, Тургенева, Пушкина, Лермонтова, Чехова. С особым вниманием читалось все, что касалось описания тюрем, допросов, каторги, при этом совершенно исключительным успехом пользовался «Сон Попова» Ал. Толстого.

III. Бегство

Побег из ГУЛАГа. Часть 3. III. Бегство

Накануне целый день был дождь. Горы были закрыты низкими густыми тучами. — Если завтра не уйдем, — мрачно сказал муж, — надо просить о продлении свидания. В этом, наверное, откажут, но пока придет телеграмма, нужно воспользоваться первым сухим днем и бежать. Завтра день отдыха, я могу не выходить на работу, и меня не хватятся до следующего дня. Но в такой дождь идти трудно. Он ушел на пункт и увел с собой сына. Я в десятый раз пересмотрела все вещи. Самое необходимое не укладывалось в три рюкзака, из которых два должны были быть легкими. Сахар, сало, рис, немного сухарей; считали, что идти не менее десяти дней, а нас трое. Необходимо было взять хотя бы по одной перемене белья и по непромокаемому пальто. Нет, ничего у меня не получалось. Вечером ветер переменился, и все в деревне стали собираться наутро в поход. Муж вернулся с работы, и, когда мальчик уснул, мы принялись опять все пересматривать. — Портянки запасные нужны для всех. Разорвала две простыни, накроила портянок, — рюкзаки еще больше разбухли. — Надо убавлять что-нибудь, — говорит муж. — Сахар? — Нет, сахар — это самое существенное. Соли достаточно? — Вот соль.

Глава 7

Борьба за Красный Петроград. Глава 7

Одновременно с разворачивавшимися событиями на Петроградском фронте и первым наступлением белой армии на Петроград группа представителей русской торгово-промышленной буржуазии вела в Финляндии контрреволюционную работу, направленную к объединению всех действовавших против Советской России сил и заключению военного союза с прибалтийскими государствами. При помощи финляндской буржуазии русская контрреволюция получила возможность приступить к непосредственной организации антисоветского фронта. В общих чертах эта деятельность сводилась к следующему. С разрешения финляндского правительства в Гельсингфорсе в конце 1918 года был образован особый комитет по делам эмигрирующей из Советской России русской буржуазии под председательством А. Ф. Трепова. В начале 1919 г. в связи с прибытием из Петрограда П. Б. Струве и А. В. Карташева в Выборге было созвано совещание представителей русских торгово-промышленных [242] кругов, на котором председателем указанного комитета вместо Трепова был избран представитель Национального центра Карташев. С приездом в Гельсингфорс генерала Н. Н. Юденича, бывшего командующего Кавказской армией в дни мировой войны и заслужившего хорошую репутацию среди русской буржуазии, вся политика комитета по делам русских в Финляндии была направлена по линии оказания поддержки генералу Юденичу. Выделенный из состава комитета совет промышленности под председательством Ф. Ф. Утемана занял под общим поручительством в гельсингфорсских банках 2 миллиона марок для содействия всем начинаниям русского генерала. Настроение в среде представителей русской буржуазии, находившейся в Финляндии, в смысле их внешней ориентации было не вполне установившимся.

Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского

Братья Лимбург. Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского. Цикл Времена года. XV век.

«Великолепный часослов герцога Беррийского» или, в другой версии перевода, «Роскошный часослов герцога Беррийского» (фр. Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry) - иллюстрированный манускрипт XV века. Самая известная часть изображений часослова, цикл «Времена года» состоит из 12 миниатюр с изображением соответствующих сезону деталей жизни на фоне замков. Создание рукописи началось в первой четверти XV века по заказу Жана, герцога Беррийского. Не была закончена при жизни заказчика и своих главных создателей, братьев Лимбург.

Глава 3. Балтийские «касатки» в войне на Хвалынском море (1919-1920 гг.) [61]

Короли подплава в море червонных валетов. Часть I. Советский подплав в период Гражданской войны (1918–1920 гг.). Глава 3. Балтийские «касатки» в войне на Хвалынском море (1919-1920 гг.)

Волжскую военную флотилию (ВВФ) сформировали во время Гражданской войны в бассейне р. Волги и на акватории северной части Каспийского моря, где она действовала в период с июня 1918 г. по самый конец июля 1919 г. Из ее состава в октябре 1918 г. выделилась Астрахано-Каспийская военная флотилия (АКВФ). Главной [62] базой АКВФ стала Астрахань. Находясь в составе 11-й армии, вяло проводившей операции в северной части Каспия, АКВФ осуществляла ее поддержку с моря и защиту дельты р. Волги. Как и везде на всех фронтах, сил и средств для ведения боевых действий не хватало, и высшее руководство молодой Советской Республики распорядилось направить на Каспий боевые корабли с Балтики. Среди них оказались и 4 малые подводные лодки: три лодки типа «Касатка» — сама «Касатка», «Макрель» и «Окунь» и еще одна — уникальная «Минога». Если бы политики лучше учились в гимназии или, по крайней мере, посоветовались со спецами, то подводные лодки оставили бы тогда в покое. Вот что говорится о северном Каспии в Военной энциклопедии издания 1912 г.: «Каспийское море (Хвалынское), величайшее на земном шаре озеро, остаток «Сарматского моря», которое вместе с Черным и Каспийским морями покрывало в начале третичного периода весь юг России. Этот обширный бассейн представляет чрезвычайное разнообразие в климатическом и физическом отношениях. В гидрографическом отношении Каспийское море линией устье р. Терек — п-ов Мангышлак{6} делится на два обособленных бассейна.

9 000 г. до н.э. - 5000 г. до н.э.

С 9 000 г. до н.э. по 5000 г. до н.э.

От появления земледелия и скотоводства до начала использования меди в некоторых регионах.

IV. Арабская сказка на советский лад

Побег из ГУЛАГа. Часть 1. IV. Арабская сказка на советский лад

Зима голодная, холодная и темная была ужасно. Пришлось остаться в Павловске, в одной комнате, потому что здесь все же легче было доставать дрова. Существование людей свелось к такой нужде, какую, может быть, не знал пещерный человек, ибо он был приспособлен к тому, чтобы не умереть с голоду и не замерзнуть, мы же, интеллигенты, принужденные по-прежнему работать в требовательных интеллектуальных областях, были бессильны и беспомощны. Человек в драном пальто, для тепла подвязанный веревкой, в обутках, сшитых из старого ковра, с потрескавшимися от холода и топки железной печурки пальцами, с нервным, бегающим, голодным взглядом, был совсем не нищий, а чаще всего профессор или даже академик. Жены были не лучше. Ребятишки — истощены до последней степени. Я знала малыша, двух-трех лет, он понял, как трудно терпеть голод, и научился не доедать сразу и прятать корки под шкап, в игрушки, под ковер. Он не всегда их находил, плакал, но никому не открывал своего секрета, пока в бессильной обиде не пожаловался матери.

Chapter XVII

The voyage of the Beagle. Chapter XVII. Galapagos Archipelago

The whole Group Volcanic Numbers of Craters Leafless Bushes Colony at Charles Island James Island Salt-lake in Crater Natural History of the Group Ornithology, curious Finches Reptiles Great Tortoises, habits of Marine Lizard, feeds on Sea-weed Terrestrial Lizard, burrowing habits, herbivorous Importance of Reptiles in the Archipelago Fish, Shells, Insects Botany American Type of Organization Differences in the Species or Races on different Islands Tameness of the Birds Fear of Man, an acquired Instinct SEPTEMBER 15th.—This archipelago consists of ten principal islands, of which five exceed the others in size. They are situated under the Equator, and between five and six hundred miles westward of the coast of America. They are all formed of volcanic rocks; a few fragments of granite curiously glazed and altered by the heat, can hardly be considered as an exception. Some of the craters, surmounting the larger islands, are of immense size, and they rise to a height of between three and four thousand feet. Their flanks are studded by innumerable smaller orifices. I scarcely hesitate to affirm, that there must be in the whole archipelago at least two thousand craters. These consist either of lava or scoriae, or of finely-stratified, sandstone-like tuff. Most of the latter are beautifully symmetrical; they owe their origin to eruptions of volcanic mud without any lava: it is a remarkable circumstance that every one of the twenty-eight tuff-craters which were examined, had their southern sides either much lower than the other sides, or quite broken down and removed.