Lolonois equips a fleet to land upon the Spanish islands of America, with intent to rob, sack and burn whatsoever he met with.
OF this design Lolonois giving notice to all the pirates, whether at home or abroad, he got together, in a little while, above four hundred men; beside which, there was then in Tortuga another pirate, named Michael de Basco, who, by his piracy, had got riches sufficient to live at ease, and go no more abroad; having, withal, the office of major of the island. But seeing the great preparations that Lolonois made for this expedition, he joined him, and offered him, that if he would make him his chief captain by land (seeing he knew the country very well, and all its avenues) he would share in his fortunes, and go with him. They agreed upon articles to the great joy of Lolonois, knowing that Basco had done great actions in Europe, and had the repute of a good soldier. Thus they all embarked in eight vessels, that of Lolonois being the greatest, having ten guns of indifferent carriage.
All things being ready, and the whole company on board, they set sail together about the end of April, being, in all, six hundred and sixty persons. They steered for that part called Bayala, north of Hispaniola: here they took into their company some French hunters, who voluntarily offered themselves, and here they provided themselves with victuals and necessaries for their voyage.
From hence they sailed again the last of July, and steered directly to the eastern cape of the isle called Punta d'Espada. Hereabouts espying a ship from Puerto Rico, bound for New Spain, laden with cocoa-nuts, Lolonois commanded the rest of the fleet to wait for him near Savona, on the east of Cape Punta d'Espada, he alone intending to take the said vessel. The Spaniards, though they had been in sight full two hours, and knew them to be pirates, yet would not flee, but prepared to fight, being well armed, and provided. The combat lasted three hours, and then they surrendered. This ship had sixteen guns, and fifty fighting men aboard: they found in her 120,000 weight of cocoa, 40,000 pieces of eight, and the value of 10,000 more in jewels. Lolonois sent the vessel presently to Tortuga to be unladed, with orders to return as soon as possible to Savona, where he would wait for them: meanwhile, the rest of the fleet being arrived at Savona, met another Spanish vessel coming from Coman, with military provisions to Hispaniola, and money to pay the garrisons there. This vessel they also took, without any resistance, though mounted with eight guns. In it were 7,000 weight of powder, a great number of muskets, and like things, with 12,000 pieces of eight.
These successes encouraged the pirates, they seeming very lucky beginnings, especially finding their fleet pretty well recruited in a little time: for the first ship arriving at Tortuga, the governor ordered it to be instantly unladen, and soon after sent back, with fresh provisions, and other necessaries, to Lolonois. This ship he chose for himself, and gave that which he commanded to his comrade, Anthony du Puis. Being thus recruited with men in lieu of them he had lost in taking the prizes, and by sickness, he found himself in a good condition to set sail for Maracaibo, in the province of Neuva Venezuela, in the latitude of 12 deg. 10 min. north. This island is twenty leagues long, and twelve broad. To this port also belong the islands of Onega and Monges. The east side thereof is called Cape St. Roman, and the western side Cape of Caquibacoa: the gulf is called, by some, the Gulf of Venezuela, but the pirates usually call it the Bay of Maracaibo.
At the entrance of this gulf are two islands extending from east to west; that towards the east is called Isla de las Vigilias, or the Watch Isle; because in the middle is a high hill, on which stands a watch-house. The other is called Isla de la Palomas, or the Isle of Pigeons. Between these two islands runs a little sea, or rather lake of fresh water, sixty leagues long, and thirty broad; which disgorging itself into the ocean, dilates itself about the said two islands. Between them is the best passage for ships, the channel being no broader than the flight of a great gun, of about eight pounds. On the Isle of Pigeons standeth a castle, to impede the entry of vessels, all being necessitated to come very nigh the castle, by reason of two banks of sand on the other side, with only fourteen feet water. Many other banks of sand there are in this lake; as that called El Tablazo, or the Great Table, no deeper than ten feet, forty leagues within the lake; others there are, that have no more than six, seven, or eight feet in depth: all are very dangerous, especially to mariners unacquainted with them. West hereof is the city of Maracaibo, very pleasant to the view, its houses being built along the shore, having delightful prospects all round: the city may contain three or four thousand persons, slaves included, all which make a town of reasonable bigness. There are judged to be about eight hundred persons able to bear arms, all Spaniards. Here are one parish church, well built and adorned, four monasteries, and one hospital. The city is governed by a deputy governor, substituted by the governor of the Caraccas. The trade here exercised is mostly in hides and tobacco. The inhabitants possess great numbers of cattle, and many plantations, which extend thirty leagues in the country, especially towards the great town of Gibraltar, where are gathered great quantities of cocoa-nuts, and all other garden fruits, which serve for the regale and sustenance of the inhabitants of Maracaibo, whose territories are much drier than those of Gibraltar. Hither those of Maracaibo send great quantities of flesh, they making returns in oranges, lemons, and other fruits; for the inhabitants of Gibraltar want flesh, their fields not being capable of feeding cows or sheep.
Before Maracaibo is a very spacious and secure port, wherein may be built all sorts of vessels, having great convenience of timber, which may be transported thither at little charge. Nigh the town lies also a small island called Borrica, where they feed great numbers of goats, which cattle the inhabitants use more for their skins than their flesh or milk; they slighting these two, unless while they are tender and young kids. In the fields are fed some sheep, but of a very small size. In some islands of the lake, and in other places hereabouts, are many savage Indians, called by the Spaniards bravoes, or wild: these could never be reduced by the Spaniards, being brutish, and untameable. They dwell mostly towards the west side of the lake, in little huts built on trees growing in the water; so to keep themselves from innumerable mosquitoes, or gnats, which infest and torment them night and day. To the east of the said lake are whole towns of fishermen, who likewise live in huts built on trees, as the former. Another reason of this dwelling, is the frequent inundations; for after great rains, the land is often overflown for two or three leagues, there being no less than twenty-five great rivers that feed this lake. The town of Gibraltar is also frequently drowned by these, so that the inhabitants are constrained to retire to their plantations.
Gibraltar, situate at the side of the lake about forty leagues within it, receives its provisions of flesh, as has been said, from Maracaibo. The town is inhabited by about 1,500 persons, whereof four hundred may bear arms; the greatest part of them keep shops, wherein they exercise one trade or another. In the adjacent fields are numerous plantations of sugar and cocoa, in which are many tall and beautiful trees, of whose timber houses may be built, and ships. Among these are many handsome and proportionable cedars, seven or eight feet about, of which they can build boats and ships, so as to bear only one great sail; such vessels being called piraguas. The whole country is well furnished with rivers and brooks, very useful in droughts, being then cut into many little channels to water their fields and plantations. They plant also much tobacco, well esteemed in Europe, and for its goodness is called there tobacco de sacerdotes, or priest's tobacco. They enjoy nigh twenty leagues of jurisdiction, which is bounded by very high mountains perpetually covered with snow. On the other side of these mountains is situate a great city called Merida, to which the town of Gibraltar is subject. All merchandise is carried hence to the aforesaid city on mules, and that but at one season of the year, by reason of the excessive cold in those high mountains. On the said mules returns are made in flour of meal, which comes from towards Peru, by the way of Estaffe.
Thus far I thought good to make a short description of the lake of Maracaibo, that my reader might the better comprehend what I shall say concerning the actions of pirates in this place, as follows.
Lolonois arriving at the gulf of Venezuela, cast anchor with his whole fleet out of sight of the Vigilia or Watch Isle; next day very early he set sail thence with all his ships for the lake of Maracaibo, where they cast anchor again; then they landed their men, with design to attack first the fortress that commanded the bar, therefore called de la barra. This fort consists only of several great baskets of earth placed on a rising ground, planted with sixteen great guns, with several other heaps of earth round about for covering their men: the pirates having landed a league off this fort, advanced by degrees towards it; but the governor having espied their landing, had placed an ambuscade to cut them off behind, while he should attack them in front. This the pirates discovered, and getting before, they defeated it so entirely, that not a man could retreat to the castle: this done, Lolonois, with his companions, advanced immediately to the fort, and after a fight of almost three hours, with the usual desperation of this sort of people, they became masters thereof, without any other arms than swords and pistols: while they were fighting, those who were the routed ambuscade, not being able to get into the castle, retired into Maracaibo in great confusion and disorder, crying "The pirates will presently be here with two thousand men and more." The city having formerly been taken by this kind of people, and sacked to the uttermost, had still an idea of that misery; so that upon these dismal news they endeavoured to escape towards Gibraltar in their boats and canoes, carrying with them all the goods and money they could. Being come to Gibraltar, they told how the fortress was taken, and nothing had been saved, nor any persons escaped.
The castle thus taken by the pirates, they presently signified to the ships their victory, that they should come farther in without fear of danger: the rest of that day was spent in ruining and demolishing the said castle. They nailed the guns, and burnt as much as they could not carry away, burying the dead, and sending on board the fleet the wounded. Next day, very early, they weighed anchor, and steered altogether towards Maracaibo, about six leagues distant from the fort; but the wind failing that day, they could advance little, being forced to expect the tide. Next morning they came in sight of the town, and prepared for landing under the protection of their own guns, fearing the Spaniards might have laid an ambuscade in the woods: they put their men into canoes, brought for that purpose, and landed where they thought most convenient, shooting still furiously with their great guns: of those in the canoes, half only went ashore, the other half remained aboard; they fired from the ships as fast as possible, towards the woody part of the shore, but could discover nobody; then they entered the town, whose inhabitants, as I told you, were retired to the woods, and Gibraltar, with their wives, children, and families. Their houses they left well provided with victuals, as flour, bread, pork, brandy, wines, and poultry, with these the pirates fell to making good cheer, for in four weeks before they had no opportunity of filling their stomachs with such plenty.
They instantly possessed themselves of the best houses in the town, and placed sentinels wherever they thought convenient; the great church served them for their main guard. Next day they sent out an hundred and sixty men to find out some of the inhabitants in the woods thereabouts; these returned the same night, bringing with them 20,000 pieces of eight, several mules laden with household goods and merchandise, and twenty prisoners, men, women, and children. Some of these were put to the rack, to make them confess where they had hid the rest of the goods; but they could extort very little from them. Lolonois, who valued not murdering, though in cold blood, ten or twelve Spaniards, drew his cutlass, and hacked one to pieces before the rest, saying, "If you do not confess and declare where you have hid the rest of your goods, I will do the like to all your companions." At last, amongst these horrible cruelties and inhuman threats, one promised to show the place where the rest of the Spaniards were hid; but those that were fled, having intelligence of it, changed place, and buried the remnant of their riches underground, so that the pirates could not find them out, unless some of their own party should reveal them; besides, the Spaniards flying from one place to another every day, and often changing woods, were jealous even of each other, so as the father durst scarce trust his own son.
After the pirates had been fifteen days in Maracaibo, they resolved for Gibraltar; but the inhabitants having received intelligence thereof, and that they intended afterwards to go to Merida, gave notice of it to the governor there, who was a valiant soldier, and had been an officer in Flanders. His answer was, "he would have them take no care, for he hoped in a little while to exterminate the said pirates." Whereupon he came to Gibraltar with four hundred men well armed, ordering at the same time the inhabitants to put themselves in arms, so that in all he made eight hundred fighting men. With the same speed he raised a battery toward the sea, mounted with twenty guns, covered with great baskets of earth: another battery he placed in another place, mounted with eight guns. This done, he barricaded a narrow passage to the town through which the pirates must pass, opening at the same time another through much dirt and mud into the wood totally unknown to the pirates.
The pirates, ignorant of these preparations, having embarked all their prisoners and booty, took their way towards Gibraltar. Being come in sight of the place, they saw the royal standard hanging forth, and that those of the town designed to defend their houses. Lolonois seeing this, called a council of war what they ought to do, telling his officers and mariners, "That the difficulty of the enterprise was very great, seeing the Spaniards had had so much time to put themselves in a posture of defence, and had got a good body of men together, with much ammunition; but notwithstanding," said he, "have a good courage; we must either defend ourselves like good soldiers, or lose our lives with all the riches we have got. Do as I shall do who am your captain: at other times we have fought with fewer men than we have in our company at present, and yet we have overcome greater numbers than there possibly can be in this town: the more they are, the more glory and the greater riches we shall gain." The pirates supposed that all the riches of the inhabitants of Maracaibo were transported to Gibraltar, or at least the greatest part. After this speech, they all promised to follow, and obey him. Lolonois made answer, "'Tis well; but know ye, withal, that the first man who shall show any fear, or the least apprehension thereof, I will pistol him with my own hands."
With this resolution they cast anchor nigh the shore, near three-quarters of a league from the town: next day before sun-rising, they landed three hundred and eighty men well provided, and armed every one with a cutlass, and one or two pistols, and sufficient powder and bullet for thirty charges. Here they all shook hands in testimony of good courage, and began their march, Lolonois speaking thus, "Come, my brethren, follow me, and have good courage." They followed their guide, who, believing he led them well, brought them to the way which the governor had barricaded. Not being able to pass that way, they went to the other newly made in the wood among the mire, which the Spaniards could shoot into at pleasure; but the pirates, full of courage, cut down the branches of trees and threw them on the way, that they might not stick in the dirt. Meanwhile, those of Gibraltar fired with their great guns so furiously, they could scarce hear nor see for the noise and smoke. Being passed the wood, they came on firm ground, where they met with a battery of six guns, which immediately the Spaniards discharged upon them, all loaded with small bullets and pieces of iron; and the Spaniards sallying forth, set upon them with such fury, as caused the pirates to give way, few of them caring to advance towards the fort, many of them being already killed and wounded. This made them go back to seek another way; but the Spaniards having cut down many trees to hinder the passage, they could find none, but were forced to return to that they had left. Here the Spaniards continued to fire as before, nor would they sally out of their batteries to attack them any more. Lolonois and his companions not being able to grimp up the baskets of earth, were compelled to use an old stratagem, wherewith at last they deceived and overcame the Spaniards.
Lolonois retired suddenly with all his men, making show as if he fled; hereupon the Spaniards crying out "They flee, they flee, let us follow them," sallied forth with great disorder to the pursuit. Being drawn to some distance from the batteries, which was the pirates only design, they turned upon them unexpectedly with sword in hand, and killed above two hundred men; and thus fighting their way through those who remained, they possessed themselves of the batteries. The Spaniards that remained abroad, giving themselves over for lost, fled to the woods: those in the battery of eight guns surrendered themselves, obtaining quarter for their lives. The pirates being now become masters of the town, pulled down the Spanish colours and set up their own, taking prisoners as many as they could find. These they carried to the great church, where they raised a battery of several great guns, fearing lest the Spaniards that were fled should rally, and come upon them again; but next day, being all fortified, their fears were over. They gathered the dead to bury them, being above five hundred Spaniards, besides the wounded in the town, and those that died of their wounds in the woods. The pirates had also above one hundred and fifty prisoners, and nigh five hundred slaves, many women and children.
Of their own companions only forty were killed, and almost eighty wounded, whereof the greatest part died through the bad air, which brought fevers and other illness. They put the slain Spaniards into two great boats, and carrying them a quarter of a league to sea, they sunk the boats; this done, they gathered all the plate, household stuff, and merchandise they could, or thought convenient to carry away. The Spaniards who had anything left had hid it carefully: but the unsatisfied pirates, not contented with the riches they had got, sought for more goods and merchandise, not sparing those who lived in the fields, such as hunters and planters. They had scarce been eighteen days on the place, when the greatest part of the prisoners died for hunger. For in the town were few provisions, especially of flesh, though they had some, but no sufficient quantity of flour of meal, and this the pirates had taken for themselves, as they also took the swine, cows, sheep, and poultry, without allowing any share to the poor prisoners; for these they only provided some small quantity of mules' and asses' flesh; and many who could not eat of that loathsome provision died for hunger, their stomachs not being accustomed to such sustenance. Of the prisoners many also died under the torment they sustained to make them discover their money or jewels; and of these, some had none, nor knew of none, and others denying what they knew, endured such horrible deaths.
Finally, after having been in possession of the town four entire weeks, they sent four of the prisoners to the Spaniards that were fled to the woods, demanding of them a ransom for not burning the town. The sum demanded was 10,000 pieces of eight, which if not sent, they threatened to reduce it to ashes. For bringing in this money, they allowed them only two days; but the Spaniards not having been able to gather so punctually such a sum, the pirates fired many parts of the town; whereupon the inhabitants begged them to help quench the fire, and the ransom should be readily paid. The pirates condescended, helping as much as they could to stop the fire; but, notwithstanding all their best endeavours, one part of the town was ruined, especially the church belonging to the monastery was burnt down. After they had received the said sum, they carried aboard all the riches they had got, with a great number of slaves which had not paid the ransom; for all the prisoners had sums of money set upon them, and the slaves were also commanded to be redeemed. Hence they returned to Maracaibo, where being arrived, they found a general consternation in the whole city, to which they sent three or four prisoners to tell the governor and inhabitants, "they should bring them 30,000 pieces of eight aboard their ships, for a ransom of their houses, otherwise they should be sacked anew and burnt."
Among these debates a party of pirates came on shore, and carried away the images, pictures, and bells of the great church, aboard the fleet. The Spaniards who were sent to demand the sum aforesaid returned, with orders to make some agreement; who concluded with the pirates to give for their ransom and liberty 20,000 pieces of eight, and five hundred cows, provided that they should commit no farther hostilities, but depart thence presently after payment of money and cattle. The one and the other being delivered, the whole fleet set sail, causing great joy to the inhabitants of Maracaibo, to see themselves quit of them: but three days after they renewed their fears with admiration, seeing the pirates appear again, and re-enter the port with all their ships: but these apprehensions vanished, upon hearing one of the pirate's errand, who came ashore from Lolonois, "to demand a skilful pilot to conduct one of the greatest ships over the dangerous bank that lieth at the very entry of the lake." Which petition, or rather command, was instantly granted.
They had now been full two months in those towns, wherein they committed those cruel and insolent actions we have related. Departing thence, they took their course to Hispaniola, and arrived there in eight days, casting anchor in a port called Isla de la Vacca, or Cow Island. This island is inhabited by French bucaniers, who mostly sell the flesh they hunt to pirates and others, who now and then put in there to victual, or trade. Here they unladed their whole cargazon of riches, the usual storehouse of the pirates being commonly under the shelter of the bucaniers. Here they made a dividend of all their prizes and gains, according to the order and degree of every one, as has been mentioned before. Having made an exact calculation of all their plunder, they found in ready money 260,000 pieces of eight: this being divided, every one received for his share in money, as also in silk, linen, and other commodities, to the value of above 100 pieces of eight. Those who had been wounded received their first part, after the rate mentioned before, for the loss of their limbs: then they weighed all the plate uncoined, reckoning ten pieces of eight to a pound; the jewels were prized indifferently, either too high or too low, by reason of their ignorance: this done, every one was put to his oath again, that he had not smuggled anything from the common stock. Hence they proceeded to the dividend of the shares of such as were dead in battle, or otherwise: these shares were given to their friends, to be kept entire for them, and to be delivered in due time to their nearest relations, or their apparent lawful heirs.
The whole dividend being finished, they set sail for Tortuga: here they arrived a month after, to the great joy of most of the island; for as to the common pirates, in three weeks they had scarce any money left, having spent it all in things of little value, or lost it at play. Here had arrived, not long before them, two French ships, with wine and brandy, and suchlike commodities; whereby these liquors, at the arrival of the pirates, were indifferent cheap. But this lasted not long, for soon after they were enhanced extremely, a gallon of brandy being sold for four pieces of eight. The governor of the island bought of the pirates the whole cargo of the ship laden with cocoa, giving for that rich commodity scarce the twentieth part of its worth. Thus they made shift to lose and spend the riches they had got, in much less time than they were purchased: the taverns and stews, according to the custom of pirates, got the greatest part; so that, soon after, they were forced to seek more by the same unlawful means they had got the former.
Дарвин, Ч. 1839
Кругосветное путешествие Чарльза Дарвина на корабле «Бигль» в 1831-1836 годах под командованием капитана Роберта Фицроя. Главной целью экспедиции была детальная картографическая съёмка восточных и западных берегов Южной Америки. И основная часть времени пятилетнего плавания «Бигля» была потрачена именно на эти исследования - c 28 февраля 1832 до 7 сентября 1835 года. Следующая задача заключалась в создании системы хронометрических измерений в последовательном ряде точек вокруг земного шара для точного определения меридианов этих точек. Для этого и было необходимо совершить кругосветное путешествие. Так можно было экспериментально подтвердить правильность хронометрического определения долготы: удостовериться, что определение по хронометру долготы любой исходной точки совпадает с такими же определениями долготы этой точки, которое проводилось по возвращению к ней после пересечения земного шара.
Zdenek Burian : Reconstruction of Upper Paleolithic daily life
Cro-Magnons, early modern humans or Homo sapiens sapiens (50 000 - 10 000 years before present). Reconstruction of Upper Paleolithic daily life by Zdenek Burian, an influential 20th century palaeo-artist, painter and book illustrator from Czechoslovakia. The images represent an artistic rendition of the ideas used to circulate in the middle of 20th century: what was it like for European early modern humans or Cro-Magnons to live during the last Ice Ages (from about 40 000 to 12 000 years before present). Some of the concepts are put in doubt today, some are still retaining their value.
Великая оболганная война-2. Нам не за что каяться! Сборник. Ред.-сост. А. Дюков: М., Яуза, Эксмо, 2008
Аннотация издательства: Наши враги - и внешние, и внутренние - покушаются на самое святое - на народную память о Великой Отечественной войне. Нас пытаются лишить Великой Победы. Вторя геббельсовской пропаганде, псевдоисторики внушают нам, что Победа-де была достигнута «слишком дорогой ценой», что она якобы обернулась «порабощением Восточной Европы», что солдаты Красной Армии будто бы «изнасиловали Германию», а советских граждан, переживших немецкую оккупацию, чуть ли не поголовно сослали в Сибирь. Враги приравнивают Советский Союз к нацистскому Рейху, советских солдат - к фашистским карателям. И вот уже от нашей страны требуют «платить и каяться», советскую символику запрещают наравне с нацистской, а памятники воинам-освободителям в Восточной Европе под угрозой сноса... Но нам не за что каяться! Эта книга - отповедь клеветникам, опровержение самых грязных, самых лживых мифов о Великой Отечественной войне, распространяемых врагами России.
Карл Густав Юнг : Диагностируя диктаторов : Аналитическая психология: прошлое и настоящее / К.Г.Юнг, Э. Cэмюэлс, В.Одайник, Дж. Хаббэк. Сост. В.В. Зеленский, А.М. Руткевич. М.: Мартис, 1995
Октябрь 1938 г. Запоминающийся интеллигентный и неутомимый X. Р. Никербокер был одним из лучших американских иностранных корреспондентов. Родился в Техасе в 1899 г.; в 1923 г. в Мюнхене, где он изучал психиатрию, во время пивного путча Гитлера переключился на журналистику, в дальнейшем большая часть его карьеры связана с Берлином. Но он также печатал материалы о Советском Союзе (премия Пулитцера 1931 г.), итало-эфиопской войне, гражданской войне в Испании, японо-китайской войне, присоединении Австрии, Мюнхенском соглашении. Он писал репортажи о битве за Британию, о войне в Тихом океане: погиб в 1949 г. в Бомбее в авиационной катастрофе. Никербокер посетил Юнга в Кюснахте в октябре 1938 г., приехав непосредственно из Праги, где оказался свидетелем распада Чехословакии. Это интервью, одно из самых продолжительных, которое дал Юнг, было опубликовано в «Херст Интернейшенл-Космополитен» за январь 1939 г. и в несколько измененном виде вошло в книгу Никербокера «Завтра Гитлер?» (1941). В основу настоящей публикации положена статья из «Kocмополитен», из которой исключили всякий иной материал, кроме вопросов и ответов. В этом же выпуске журнала был помещен биографический очерк о Юнге, написанный Элизабет Шепли Серджент. Эти статьи из «Космополитен» сделали имя Юнга известным в США. Никербокер: Что произойдет, если Гитлера, Муссолини и Сталина, всех вместе, закрыть на замок, выделив для них на неделю буханку хлеба и кувшин воды? Кто-то получит все или они разделят хлеб и воду? Юнг: Я сомневаюсь, что они поделятся.
Морозов, М. Э.: М., АОЗТ редакция журнала «Моделист-конструктор», 1999
Британский историк Питер Смит, известный своими исследованиями боевых действий в Ла-Манше и южной части Северного моря, написал о «шнелльботах», что «к концу войны они оставались единственной силой, не подчинившейся британскому господству на море». Не оставляет сомнения, что в лице «шнелльбота» немецким конструкторам удалось создать отличный боевой корабль. Как ни странно, этому способствовал отказ от высоких скоростных показателей, и, как следствие, возможность оснастить катера дизельными двигателями. Такое решение положительно сказалось на улучшении живучести «москитов». Ни один из них не погиб от случайного возгорания, что нередко происходило в английском и американском флотах. Увеличенное водоизмещение позволило сделать конструкцию катеров весьма устойчивой к боевым повреждениям. Скользящий таранный удар эсминца, подрыв на мине или попадание 2-3 снарядов калибра свыше 100-мм не приводили, как правило, к неизбежной гибели катера (например, 15 марта 1942 года S-105 пришел своим ходом в базу, получив около 80 пробоин от осколков, пуль и снарядов малокалиберных пушек), хотя часто «шнелльботы» приходилось уничтожать из-за условий тактической обстановки. Еще одной особенностью, резко выделявшей «шнелльботы» из ряда торпедных катеров других стран, стала огромная по тем временам дальность плавания - до 800-900 миль 30-узловым ходом (М. Уитли в своей работе «Deutsche Seestreitkraefte 1939-1945» называет даже большую цифру-870 миль 39-узловым ходом, во что, однако, трудно поверить). Фактически германское командование даже не могло ее полностью реализовать из-за большого риска использовать катера в светлое время суток, особенно со второй половины войны. Значительный радиус действия, несвойственные катерам того времени вытянутые круглоскулые обводы и внушительные размеры, по мнению многих, ставили германские торпедные катера в один ряд с миноносцами. С этим можно согласиться с той лишь оговоркой, что всетаки «шнелльботы» оставались торпедными, а не торпедно-артиллерийскими кораблями. Спектр решаемых ими задач был намного уже, чем у миноносцев Второй мировой войны. Проводя аналогию с современной классификацией «ракетный катер» - «малый ракетный корабль», «шнелльботы» правильнее считать малыми торпедными кораблями. Удачной оказалась и конструкция корпуса. Полубак со встроенными торпедными аппаратами улучшал мореходные качества - «шнелльботы» сохраняли возможность использовать оружие при волнении до 4-5 баллов, а малая высота борта и рубки весьма существенно уменьшали силуэт. В проведенных англичанами после войны сравнительных испытаниях германских и британских катеров выяснилось, что в ночных условиях «немец» визуально замечал противника раньше. Большие нарекания вызывало оружие самообороны - артиллерия. Не имея возможности строить параллельно с торпедными катерами их артиллерийские аналоги, как это делали англичане, немцы с конца 1941 года начали проигрывать «москитам» противника. Позднейшие попытки усилить огневую мощь «шнелльботов» до некоторой степени сократили это отставание, но полностью ликвидировать его не удалось. По части оснащения техническими средствами обнаружения германские катера также серьезно отставали от своих противников. За всю войну они так и не получили более-менее удовлетворительного малогабаритного радара. С появлением станции радиотехнической разведки «Наксос» немцы лишили врага преимущества внезапности, однако не решили проблему обнаружения целей. Таким образом, несмотря на определенные недостатки, в целом германские торпедные катера не только соответствовали предъявляемым требованиям, но и по праву считались одними из лучших представителей своего класса времен Второй мировой войны. Морская коллекция.
Reconstructions of Upper Paleolithic daily life
From 50 000 to 10 000 years before present. Last Ice Age. Realm of Cro-Magnons and other early Homo sapiens sapiens: anatomically and more or less behaviorally modern humans. Consciousness, speech, art positively exist. It is very much debatable if Homo species other than Homo sapiens sapiens ever possessed them. Major world population is early Homo sapiens sapiens, but also some other species of Homo, more characteristic for previous epochs, Neanderthals and possibly even some subspecies of Homo erectus, coexisted for much of the period. Humans begin to populate Australia and Americas. First decisive evidence of spears used as projectile weapons. Invention of a tool to throw them faster and farther: spear-thrower. Bow seems to be invented only near the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. Control of fire, fire making including, is widespread. Pleistocene megafauna: iconic mammoths and woolly rhinoceros. Many of mammals common enough today exist in much larger forms: giant beavers, giant polar bears, giant kangaroos, giant deers, giant condors. Some in "cave" forms, like cave bears, cave lions, cave hyenas.
Zdenek Burian : Reconstruction of Lower Paleolithic daily life
Australopithecinae or Australopithecina is a group of extinct hominids. The Australopithecus, the best known among them, lived in Africa from around 4 million to somewhat after 2 million years ago. Pithecanthropus is a subspecies of Homo erectus, if the word is used as the name for the Java Man. Or sometimes a synonym for all the Homo erectus populations. Homo erectus species lived from 1.9 million years ago to 70 000 years ago. Or even 13 000 - 12 000, if Homo floresiensis (link 1, link 2), Flores Man is a form of Homo erectus. Reconstruction of Lower Paleolithic everyday life by Zdenek Burian, an influential 20th century palaeo-artist, painter and book illustrator from Czechoslovakia. Australopithecus and pithecanthropus are depicted somewhat less anthropomorphic than the more contemporary artists and scientists tend to picture them today.
Сталин И.В. Cочинения. - Т. 1. - М.: ОГИЗ; Государственное издательство политической литературы, 1946. С. 206–213.
Вы, наверное, слышали об освобождении крестьян, Это было время, когда правительство получало двойной удар: извне – поражение в Крыму, изнутри – крестьянское движение. Потому-то правительство, подхлёстываемое с двух сторон, вынуждено было уступить и заговорило об освобождении крестьян: "Мы должны сами освободить крестьян сверху, а то народ восстанет и собственными руками добьется освобождения снизу". Мы знаем, что это было за "освобождение сверху"... И если тогда народ поддался обману, если правительству удались его фарисейские планы, если оно с помощью реформ укрепило свое положение и тем самым отсрочило победу народа, то это, между прочим, означает, что тогда народ еще не был подготовлен и его легко можно было обмануть. Такая же история повторяется в жизни России и теперь. Как известно, и теперь правительство получает такой же двойной удар: извне – поражение в Манчжурии, изнутри – народная революция. Как известно, правительство, подхлестываемое с двух сторон, принуждено еще раз уступить и так же, как и тогда, [c.206] толкует о "реформах сверху": "Мы должны дать народу Государственную думу сверху, а то народ восстанет и сам созовет Учредительное собрание снизу". Таким образом, созывом Думы они хотят утихомирить народную революцию, точно так же, как уже однажды "освобождением крестьян" утихомирили великое крестьянское движение. Отсюда наша задача – со всей решимостью расстроить планы реакции, смести Государственную думу и тем самым расчистить путь народной революции. Но что такое Дума, из кого она состоит? Дума – это ублюдочный парламент.
Reconstructions of Lower Paleolithic daily life
From some 2.6 million to 300 000 years before present. The dating of the period beginning is rather floating. A new discovery may change it a great deal. It was too much time ago, fossils, artifacts of the period are more like scarce and their interpretations often seem to be confusing. The World is populated by the ancestors of humans, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos. In a way, the split among these may be considered to be the mark of the true beginning of the Lower Paleolithic as a part of human history. It is then that the participants first stepped forward. Presumable early tools are not exemplary enough. Even if being eponymous. It is not exactly clear if they were real tools. And using objects is not an exclusive characteristic of humanity anyway. The use of objects was a purely instinctive practice for many and many hundreds of years. It did not have any principle difference from other animal activities and did not make Homos of Lower and most probably of Middle Paleolithic human in the proper sense of the word. Australopithecus and Homo habilis are typical for the earlier part. Later various subspecies of Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, coexisting much of the period. Occasional use of fire. Later possibly even control of fire.
Wm. Robert Johnston: Last updated 18 August 2003
4th edition: escalation in 1988 By Wm. Robert Johnston. Last updated 18 August 2003. Introduction The following is an approximate description of the effects of a global nuclear war. For the purposes of illustration it is assumed that a war resulted in mid-1988 from military conflict between the Warsaw Pact and NATO. This is in some ways a worst-case scenario (total numbers of strategic warheads deployed by the superpowers peaked about this time; the scenario implies a greater level of military readiness; and impact on global climate and crop yields are greatest for a war in August). Some details, such as the time of attack, the events leading to war, and the winds affecting fallout patterns, are only meant to be illustrative. This applies also to the global geopolitical aftermath, which represents the author's efforts at intelligent speculation. There is much public misconception concerning the physical effects of nuclear war--some of it motivated by politics. Certainly the predictions described here are uncertain: for example, casualty figures in the U.S. are accurate perhaps to within 30% for the first few days, but the number of survivors in the U.S. after one year could differ from these figures by as much as a factor of four. Nonetheless, there is no reasonable basis for expecting results radically different from this description--for example, there is no scientific basis for expecting the extinction of the human species. Note that the most severe predictions concerning nuclear winter have now been evaluated and discounted by most of the scientific community. Sources supplying the basis for this description include the U.S.
Величко, В.Л.: С.-Петербург, Типография Артели Печатнаго Дела, Невский пр., 61, 1904
В.Л. Величко 1. Введение Какое доселе волшебное слово - Кавказ! Как веет от него неизгладимыми для всего русского народа воспоминаниями; как ярка мечта, вспыхивающая в душе при этом имени, мечта непобедимая ни пошлостью вседневной, ни суровым расчетом! Есть ли в России человек, чья семья несколько десятилетий тому назад не принесла бы этому загадочному краю жертв кровью и слезами, не возносила бы к небу жарких молитв, тревожно прислушиваясь к грозным раскатам богатырской борьбы, кипевшей вдали?! Снеговенчанные гиганты и жгучие лучи полуденного солнца, и предания старины, проникнутые глубочайшим трагизмом, и лихорадочное геройство сынов Кавказа - все это воспето и народом, и вещими выразителями его миросозерцания, вдохновленными светочами русской идеи, - нашими великими поэтами. Кавказ для нас не может быть чужим: слишком много на него потрачено всяческих сил, слишком много органически он связан с великим мировым призванием, с русским делом. В виду множества попыток (большею частью небескорыстных) сбить русское общество с толку в междуплеменных вопросах, необходимо установить раз и навсегда жизненную, правильную точку зрения на русское дело вообще. У людей, одинаково искренних, могут быть различные точки зрения. Одни считают служение русскому делу борьбой за народно-государственное существование и процветание, борьбой, не стесненной никакими заветами истории, никакими нормами нравственности или человечности; они считают, что все чужое, хотя бы и достойное, должно быть стерто с лица земли, коль скоро оно не сливается точно, быстро и бесследно с нашей народно-государственной стихией. Этот жестокий взгляд я назвал бы германским, а не русским.
Гамсахурдия З. 12 марта 1991
Дорогие соотечественники! Братство абхазов и грузин восходит к незапамятным временам. Наше общее колхское происхождение, генетическое родство между нашими народами и языками, общность истории, общность культуры обязывает нас сегодня серьезно призадуматься над дальнейшими судьбами наших народов. Мы всегда жили на одной земле, деля друг с другом и горе, и радость. У нас в течение столетий было общее царство, мы молились в одном храме и сражались с общими врагами на одном поле битвы. Представители древнейших абхазских фамилий и сегодня не отличают друг от друга абхазов и грузин. Абхазские князя Шервашидзе называли себя не только абхазскими, но и грузинскими князями, грузинский язык наравне с абхазским являлся родным языком для них, как и для абхазских писателей того времени. Нас связывали между собой культура "Вепхисткаосани" и древнейшие грузинские храмы, украшенные грузинскими надписями, те, что и сегодня стоят в Абхазии, покоряя зрителя своей красотой. Нас соединил мост царицы Тамар на реке Беслети близ Сухуми, и нине хранящий старинную грузинскую надпись, Бедиа и Мокви, Лихны, Амбра, Бичвинта и многие другие памятники – свидетели нашего братства, нашого единения. Абхаз в сознании грузина всегда бил символом возвышенного, рыцарского благородства. Об этом свидетельствуют поэма Акакия Церетели "Наставник" и многие другие шедевры грузинской литературы. Мы гордимся тем, что именно грузинский писатель Константинэ Гамсахурдиа прославил на весь мир абхазскую культуру и быт, доблесть и силу духа абхазского народа в своем романе "Похищение луны".